could/must have done

COULD HAVE DONE
MUST HAVE DONE
…..

COULD HAVE DONE

Sugeruje, że ktoś miał możność, zdolność zrobienia czegoś ale tego nie zrobił.
· I could have lent you the money. Why didn’t you ask me?
· You could have told me earlier.
· He could have won the game but he didn’t try.

COULDN’T HAVE DONE / CAN’T HAVE DONE

( I’m sure it didn’t happen.) ( I’m sure it hasn’t happened.)
Wyraża NIEMOŻLIWOŚĆ; kiedy analizujemy jakąś sytuację i wyciągamy wnioski dotyczące przeszłości; mówimy wtedy, że to niemożliwe aby coś sie mogło wydarzyć.

* She couldn’t have gone to her mother by car yesterday because the car was standing at the garage.

*He is not here but he can’t have gone very far because he has left the key in the door.

 

MUST HAVE DONE

wnioskowanie odnoszące się do przeszłości;

· He didn’t phone me. He must have been away.
· I must have left my umbrella on the bus.
· The thieves must have climbed in through this broken window.

Negative—can’t have done / couldn’t have done

MAY/MIGHT HAVE DONE

Spekulacje dotyczące przeszłości; wyraża MOŻLIWOŚĆ w przeszłości;
· It’s surprising that she hasn’t rung you, but she may have forgotten about it.
· She may not have received your letter…..

SHOULD/SHOULDN’T HAVE DONE
· You should have told me about it!
· You shouldn’t have written that letter!

NEEDN’T HAVE DONE
Nie było konieczności a mimo to ktoś coś zrobił (niepotrzebnie!)
· You needn’t have carried all those books yourself.
· You needn’t have cleaned the room. I did it yesterday.