Conditionals – Okresy warunkowe



*warunek możliwy do spełnienia
*odnosi się do przyszłości lub teraźniejszości

IF + PRESENT tense, FUTURE tense

-If he runs, he will get there in time.
-The cat will scratch you if you pull her tail.

UNLESS =if+don’t/doesn’t

(unless + orzeczenie niezaprzeczone)
Unless you start at once, you will be late. = If you don’t start at once, you will be late.
I won’t be able to lift it unless you help me.
-Unless she invites me, I’ll not come.

If the fog gets thicker, the plane may / might be diverted.
If it stops snowing we can go out.
If you want to lose weight you must / should eat less bread.

If you are looking for Tom, you will find him upstairs.
If he has written the letter I’ll post it.


*warunek uznany za nierealny lub mało możliwy (tzw.’gdybanie’)
*odnosi się do przyszłości lub teraźniejszości


If I had money I would buy a Rolls Royce.
If I were you I would help him.
If I lived near my office I wouldn’t be late for work.
If I weren’t so lazy I would pass the exam.

If I knew her number I could call her.
If you tried again you might succeed.

If I were going by boat I would feel much happier.
If I were on holiday I would be touring Italy now.


*warunek niespełniony w przeszłości, okazja do jego spełnienia już minęła;


-If I had known you were coming, I would have met you at the station.
( but I didn’t know so I didn’t come)
-If he had treated her well she wouldn’t have left him.
-We would have come if you had invited us.
If it hadn’t been so cold on Sunday, we would have gone for a walk.

If we had found him earlier we could/ might have saved his life.


Używamy go gdy chcemy stwierdzić prawdy uniwersalne, prawa natury a także różne zjawiska zachodzące niezależnie od czasu, zawsze aktualne, zawsze prawdziwe.
Po spełnieniu warunku w zdaniu podrzędnym, uzyskujemy za każdym razem identyczny rezultat wyrażony w zdaniu nadrzędnym.


Przykłady zerowego okresu warunkowego:

If the snow doesn’t thaw, the temperature is below 0 degrees Celsius.

If you cool the water down to 0 degrees, it starts to freeze.

If you don’t sleep several days, you are tired.

If you are eighteen years old, you are responsible for yourself.

If the sun shines, it is a day and if the moon shines it’s a night.

If you attain your majority, you get your identity card.

Możemy także użyć słówek: when, unless lub as long as.

When you are tired, you want to rest or sleep.

As long as you are in good health, you don’t need to see the doctor.

Unless we stop destruction of our planet, the future civilizations won’t be able to survive.


If you had worked harder at school you wouldn’t clean the streets now.
3(before) 2(now)

If she hadn’t sold the car, she wouldn’t have enough money to buy a flat.
3 2

If I were you I would have talked to her a long time ago.
2 3

If he had taken my advice, he would be a rich man now.
3 2

If I had caught that plane, I would be dead now.
3 2