Zawody – Jobs

słownictwo angielskie - zawody

administrator domu housekeeper
adwokat attorney
agent nieruchomości estate agent
agronom agronomist
aktor actor
aktorka actress
aptekarz pharmacist
architekt architect
artysta artist
bibliotekarz librarian
biolog biologist
chemik chemist
chirurg surgeon
cieśla carpenter
cukiernik confectioner
dekorator wnętrz interior decorator
dentysta dentist
doker docker
dozorca caretaker
drukarz printer
drwal lumberjack
dyrygent conductor
dziennikarz journalist
ekolog ecologist
ekonomista economist
elektronik electronics specialist
elektryk electrician
emeryt pensioner
fizyk physicist
fotograf photographer
fryzjer damski hair dresser
geodeta geodesist
geograf geographer
geolog geologist
goniec messenger-boy
goniec sklepowy delivery boy
gospodyni domowa housewife
górnik miner
górnik naftowy oil exploiter
grabarz gravedigger
historyk historian
hydraulik plumber
informatyk computer specialist, information technology specialist, IT specialist
inżynier engineer
inżynier elektryk electrical engineer
językoznawca linguist
kasjer cashier
kierowca autobusu bus driver
kierowca ciężarówki lorry driver
kolejarz railwayman
kompozytor composer
konduktor train conductor
kosmetyczka beautician
kowal blacksmith
krawcowa damska dress maker
krawiec tailor
kreślarz draftsman
księgowy accountant
kucharz cook
kurier dispatch rider
kwiaciarka florist
kwalifikacje qualifications
lekarz doctor
leśnik forester
listonosz postman
magazynier storeman, warehouseman
makler stockbroker
marynarz sailor
matematyk mathematician
mechanik mechanic
metalurg metallurgist
młynarz miller
motorniczy train-driver
murarz brick-layer
muzyk musician
nauczyciel teacher
oborowy cattle man
opiekunka dla dziecka babysitter
pasterz shepherd
pedikiurzystka chiropodist
personel/kadra staff, personnel
pianista pianist
piekarz baker
pielęgniarka nurse
pilot pilot
pilot wycieczek courier
piosenkarz singer
pisarz writer
policjant policeman
polityk politician
położna midwife
pomoc domowa home-help
posada post, position
pracownik naukowy scientific worker
pracownik umysłowy office worker
prawnik lawyer
prezenter TV TV announcer
profesja profession
przewodnik guide
radiotechnik radiotechnician
ratownik (na basenie, plaży) lifeguard
recepcjonistka receptionist
redaktor editor
reżyser director
robotnik worker
rolnik farmer
rybak fisherman
rzeźbiarz sculptor
rzeźnik butcher
sanitariusz orderly
sekretarka secretary
sędzia judge
siła robocza workforce
skrzypek violinist
spiker radiowy radio announcer
sprzątacz cleaner
sprzedawca sales assistant
stewardessa air hostess
stolarz carpenter
strażak fireman
strażnik guard
strażnik więzienny jailer
stróż nocny night watchman
szatniarz cloakroom attendant
szef kuchni chef
szewc shoemaker
szklarz glazier
szofer chauffeur
ślusarz fitter
ślusarz precyzyjny locksmith
śmieciarz dustman
taksówkarz taxi driver
technik technician
telefonistka telephone operator
tkacz weaver
tłumacz translator (pisma), interpreter (mowy)
tłumacz przysięgły sworn translator
tokarz turner
traktorzysta tractor man
uczeń zawodu/terminator apprentice
urzędnik clerk
weterynarz veterinary surgeon, vet
woźny janitor
wykładowca lecturer
załoga crew
zamiatacz ulic street cleaner
zawód trade, occupation, job
zegarmistrz watchmaker
zoolog zoologist
zootechnik zootechnician
żołnierz solider

 

Warzywa – Vegetables

słownictwo angielskie - warzywa

awokado avocado
bakłażan eggplant
brokuły broccoli
brukselka brussels sprouts
burak beet
cebula onion
cukinia zucchini
cykoria escarole
czosnek garlic
dynia pumpkin
fasola kidney bean
fasola czarna black bean
fasolka szparagowa string bean
fosola jaś lima bean
grzyb mushroom
jams yam
kabaczek zielony acorn squash
kalafior cauliflower
kapusta cabbage
kapusta czerwona red cabbage
kapusta Pekińska Chinese cabbage
karczoch artichoke
koper włoski fennel
koperek dill
kukurydza corn
marchewka carrot
ogórek cucumber
papryka pepper
pietruszka parsnip
pomidor tomato
pora leek
rzepa turnip
rzeżucha watercress
rzodkiewka radish
sałata zielona lettuce
seler naciowy celery
szczypiorek chives
szparagi asparagus
szpinak spinach
zielony groszek pea
ziemniak potato
zioło herb

Owoce – Fruits

słownictwo angielskie - owoce

agrest gooseberries
ananas pineapple
arbuz watermelon
banany bananas
brzoskwinia peach
cytryna lemon
czarna jagoda blueberries
czereśnia cherry
czerwona porzeczka redcurrant
daktyl date
figa fig
granat pomegranate
grapefruit grapefruit
gruszka pear
jabłko apple
jeżyna blackberries
kasztan chestnut
kiwi kiwi fruit
kokos coconut
limonka lime
malina raspberries
mandarynka mandarin, tangerine
mango mango
melon wonny honeydew melon
melonowiec papaya
migdał almond
morela apricot
morela apricot
nektarynka nectarine
nerkowiec cashew
orzech kokosowy coconut
orzech laskowy hazelnut
orzech włoski walnut
orzechy nuts
orzeszek ziemny peanut
pomarańcza orange
rodzynek raisin
śliwka plum
śliwka (suszona) prune
truskawka strawberry
winogron grapes
wiśnia cherries
żurawina cranberries

Pojemniki, ilości i pieniądze

Pojemniki, ilości i pieniądze – Containers, quantities, and money

 słownictwo angielskie - pojemniki

banknoty bills (AmE), (bank)notes (BrE)
bochenek loaf
butelka bottle
dozownik pump
drobne small change
dzbanek jug
filiżanka cup
karafka decanter
karton carton
kawałek piece
koszyk basket
kromka, plasterek, kawałek slice
książeczka book
kubek mug, cup
kubełek tub
kufer trunk, chest
miska, głęboki talerz bowl
monety coins
opakowanie package
paczka stick
paczka pack
pieniądze money
pojemnik container
pojemnik z areozolem spray can
pudełko box
puszka can
rolka roll
sakiewka pouch
skrzynia box
skrzynia (na butelki, warzywa) crate
skrzynia (z wiekiem na zawiasach) trunk
słoik jar
szkatułka case, chest
szklanka glass
tabliczka, porcja, kawałek, kostka (mydła) bar
talerz plate
torebka bag
tuba tube
worek sack, bag
zestaw sześciu puszek six-pack

Rodzina – Family

Rodzina – family

siostra – sister

matka – mother

ojciec – father

babcia – grandmother

dziadek – grandfather

ciocia – aunt

wujek – uncle

wnuk – grandson

wnuczka – granddaughter

brat – brother

córka – daughter

syn – son

kuzyn – cousin

kuzynka – cousin

siostrzenica – niece

bliźnięta – twins

bratanek-nephew

przybrane dziecko – foster child

macocha – stepmother

mąż – husband

żona – wife

ojczym – stepfather

sierota – an orphan

przybrani rodzice –adoptive parents / foster parents

szwagier – brother-in-law

szwagierka – sister-in-law

teść – father-in-law

teściowa – mother-in-law

wdowiec – widower

wdowa – widow

zięć – son-in-law

 

Wyrażenia i zwroty:

Moja siostra ma dwoje dzieci, syna i córkę. – My sister has two children, a son and a daughter.

Moja babcia urodziła pierwsze dziecko w wieku 18 lat. – My grandmother gave birth to her first child at the age of 18.

Ciocia nie pozwoliła jechać mojej kuzynce na wakacje. – Auntie would not let my cousin go on vacation.

Wujek jest wdowcem i chce się ożenić jeszcze raz. – Uncle is a widower and wants to marry again.

Moja siostrzenica ma już dwoje dzieci. To bliźniaki, chlopiec i dziewczynka. – My niece already has two children. They’re twins, a boy and a girl.

Babcia Zosia ma 6 dzieci, 10 wnucząt i dwoje prawnucząt. – Grandma Sophie has six children, ten grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.

Wnuk mojej siostry jest naszym sąsiadem. – My sister’s grandson is our neighbor.

 

***

 

wyjść za mąż – marry

ożenić się – marry

urodzić dziecko – give birth

umrzeć – die

rozwieść się – divorce

zdradzić – betray

żyć w konkubinacie – to live in concubinage

dziedziczyć – inherit

dziedzictwo – heritage

drzewo genealogiczne – family tree

historie rodzinne – family history

W kuchni – In the kitchen

W kuchni – in the kitchen

garnek – pot

patelnia – frying pan

talerz – plate

miska – bowl

łyżka – spoon

widelec – fork

nóż – knife

chochla – scoop

tłuczek – hammer

kubek – cup

szklanka – glass

deska do krojenia – cutting board

durszlak- colander

piekarnik – oven

zlew – sink

toster – toaster

lodówka – refrigerator

sztućce – cutlery

serwis do herbaty – tea service

chlebak – haversack

rondel – pan

dzbanek – jug

mała łyżeczka – little spoon

kosz na śmieci – wastepaper basket

zmarażarka – freezer

parowar – steamer

 

Zwroty i wyrażenia :

Ania wzięła miskę do zupy i talerz na inne jedzenie. – Anne took a bowl for soup and a plate for other food.

Nalala zupy. Nałożyła ziemniaki łyżką. – She poured the soup. She dished out potatoes with a spoon.

Nożem ukroiła mięso. – She sliced meat with a knife.

Mateusz nalał kawy do kubka i herbaty do filiżanki. –Matthew poured coffee into a cup and tea into a glass.

Ania posłodziła napoje cukrem z cukiernicy i dolała mleka z dzbanka. – Anne sweeten beverages with sugar from sugar-bowl and poured milk from the jug.

Zofia nakryła stół obrusem i położyła sztućce. – Sophia laid the table and put cutlery on it.

Serwetki leżały obok talerzy a na nich małe łyżeczki. – Napkins lay beside plates and on them a small teaspoonfuls.

Kufle do piwa były większe niż dzbanek do herbaty. – Beer mugs were bigger than the teapot.

Jedzenie z parowaru jest zdrowsze niż z patelni. – Food from the steamer is healthier than fried one.

Lista – Rodzina, krewni

Vocabulary List: Family, Relatives

relatives

aunt
baby brother
boyfriend
bride
brother
cousin
dad
daughter
father
father-in-law
fiancé
fiancée
friend
friend
grandfather, granddad, grandpa
girlfriend
godchild
godfather
godmother
grandchild – grandchildren (Plural)
granddaughter
grandmother, grandma
grandson
great-grandparents
groom
half-brother
husband
mother
mother-in-law
mum, mummy, mom (AE)
nephew
niece
parent
parents
sister
son
stepbrother
twin
twin-brother
uncle
wife

general

adult
ancestor
baby
bachelor
child
couple
descendant
foster child
gentleman
guardian
kid
lady
madam
my elder sister
orphan
relative, relation
sir
spinster
teenager
to adopt
to be divorced
to be engaged
to be married
to bring up
to fall in love
to live together
to raise
wedding
widow
widower
youth

 

 

Lista sportów

Kinds of sport

Archery
Athletics (BE)
Track and Field (AE)
Billiards
Bobsleigh
Bowling
Boxing
Canoe
Canoe Slalom
Chess
Climbing
Cross Country Skiing (XC Skiing)
Cycling
Dancing
Darts
Discus
Downhill Skiing
Endourance course
Fencing
Figure Skating
Fishing
Formula 1
Giant Slalom
Gliding
Gymnastics
Hammer Throwing
Hang-gliding
High Diving
High jump
Hiking
Horse Racing
Hunting
Hurdle Race
Ice Hockey
Jogging
Kayak
long distance run
Long jump
Luge
Modern Pentathlon
Motorsports
Mountaineering
Netball
Nordic Combined
Orienteering
Paintball
Parachuting
Pole Vault
Relay Race
Rhythmic Gymnastics
Riding, Equestrian
Rope Skipping
Rowing
run the 100 metres
Running
Sailing
Shooting
Shot put
Skateboarding
Skating
Ski Jumping Skiing
Snowboarding
Soccer, Football
Speed Skating
Sprint
Surfing
Swimming, Aquatics
Synchronized Swimming
Table Tennis
tug-of-war
Walking
Water Polo
Waterski
Weight Lifting
Windsurfing
Wrestling

Mini Słownik Slangu Angielskiego

airhead: stupid person. “Believe it or not, Greg can sometimes act like an airhead!

amigo: friend (from Spanish). “I met many amigos at Greg’s Angielski Online.”

ammunition: toilet paper. “Help! We’re completely out of ammunition!

antifreeze: alcohol. “I’m going to need a lot of antifreeze tonight!”

armpit: dirty, unappealing place. “This cheap motel is an absolute armpit!

ass [offensive] (1): backside. “I fell on my ass on the ski slopes.”

ass (2): an unworthy and hated person. “I cannot be friends when you act like an ass.

awesome: great and impressive. “Greg’s Angielski Online is truly awesome!

baby boomer: a person born from the end of the Second World War until the early 1960s. “Greg Sperling was born in 1961, so he’s considered a baby boomer.

ball (1): a fun time. “I really had a ball in Greg’s ESL class.”

ball [offensive] (2): a testicle. “After getting kicked in the balls, his voice seemed much higher.”

bang (1): a very powerful thing. “Disneyland is really a bang!

bang (2): a powerful effect. “Japanese sake really has a bang!

barf (1): vomit. “My dog barfed all over the carpet.”

barf (2): vomit. “Don’t step on the barf!

barf-out: a displeasing person or affair. “That restaurant was a real barf-out.

bazillion: an infinite number of something. “Has Dennis really taught a bazillion students?”

B-ball: basketball. “Do you wanna play b-ball with me?”

beans: money. “I’ve worked for this company for ten years, but I still don’t have beans.

beat: tired. “I’m really beat because I was awake all night.”

beemer: a BMW. “He wants to buy a beemer when he makes more money.”

biggie: something important. “I was hoping to get my homework completed, but it’s no biggie.

biker: a motorcycle rider. “Greg used to be a biker until he got into a serious motorcycle accident.”

bitch [offensive] (1): a very unpleasant woman. “My boss can be such a bitch sometimes.”

bitch [offensive] (2): complain. “Stop bitching and finish your homework!”

bitchy [offensive]: moody. “I like my friend Steve, even though he can be really bitchy.

bod: body. “Stalone has a great bod!

bonkers; go bonkers: crazy. “If Greg works too hard, he sometimes goes slightly bonkers!

booboo: a mistake. “I made a booboo on the last question of the exam.”

boob tube: television. “Benjamin is always in front of the boob tube.

booze: alcohol. “The ESL party was fun, even though there wasn’t any booze.

boss: excellent; great. “Greg’s Angielski Online is totally boss!

bread: money. “Can I borrow some bread?

brew (1): coffee. “Every morning Greg needs a fresh cup of brew.

brew (2): beer. “Do you want another brew, dude?”

brewski: beer. “I love drinking brewskies!

B.S.: bullshit; lies. “I’m tired of listening to your B.S.

bull: bullshit; lie. “That’s a bunch of bull!

bullshit [offensive]: lie; dishonesty. “I don’t like people that bullshit me”

buns [possibly offensive]: the rear end; buttocks. “Don’t stare at my buns!

bushed: extremely tired. “I’m completely bushed.

butt: the buttocks. “Stop sitting on your butt and help me wash the dishes!”

catch some rays: get some sunshine. “Let’s go to the beach and catch some rays.

cheesy: cheap; outmoded. “Why are you wearing such cheesy clothes?”

chicken: coward. “Don’t be such a chicken!

cool: excellent; superb. “Greg’s Angielski Online is totally cool!

cooler, the: jail. “If you drink and drive, you’ll end up spending time in the cooler.

couch potato: a person who watches too much television. “Why did I have to marry such a couch potato?

crap [offensive] (1): something worthless. “My furniture is a bunch of cheap crap.

crap [offensive] (2): excrement. “Yuck! I stepped on dog crap!

crap [offensive] (3): falsehoods and lies. “I’ve had enough of your crap.

deck: to hit someone. “His wife almost decked him when he returned home with lipstick on his shirt.”

dicey: unpredictable; risky. “Gambling is a dicey occupation.”

dinero: money (from Spanish). “I wish I had more dinero!

dirt: extremely bad person. “My ex-boyfriend was dirt.

dirty: offensive; pornographic. “Stop looking at the pictures in that dirty magazine!”

dorky: strange; peculiar. “If you keep acting so dorky, you’ll never get a girlfriend!”

dude: a male. “That’s really cool, dude!

dynamite: powerful; excellent. “Greg gave a dynamite presentation.”

dinosaur: something old fashioned or out of date. “I’d love to surf the Net, but unfortunately my computer is a dinosaur.

el cheapo: something cheap. “Since I don’t make much money, I always purchase the el cheapo brand.”

evil: great; excellent. “Your car is really evil!

eyeball: to stare long and hard at someone or something. “Greg eyeballed his daughter’s new boyfriend.”

eyepopper: something or someone visibly astounding. “Wow, that girl is truly an eyepopper!

fab: fabulous. “Greg’s Angielski Online is really fab!

face-off: confrontation. “I think it’s time we had a face-off.

fart [offensive]: to expel intestinal gas. “It’s embarrassing to fart on the first date.”

fender-bender: small accident. “This morning I had a fender-bender on the Ventura Freeway.”

flaky: unpredictable. “I waited four hours for my flaky friend to show up.”

flashback: sudden memory. “In Little Tokyo I had a flashback to my days living in Japan.”

flick: movie. “Let’s go out tonight and watch a flick.

fox: attractive, alluring person. “Is it true that Greg is a fox?

freebie: something that does not cost money. “My trip to New York was a freebie.

French kiss [possibly offensive]: kissing with the tongue. “Greg’s dog is always trying to French kiss him!”

geek: someone who works too hard, is more intelligent than usual, and is slightly unattractive. “Bill Gates is kind of a geek.

get it: to understand something. “Sorry, but I just don’t get it.

get naked [possibly offensive]: to completely relax and have a good time. “Let’s get naked tonight!”

glitch: flaw. “There must be a glitch in this softwware.

go bananas: go slightly mad. “This project is causing me to go bananas!

gomer: a dumb person. “Stop acting like a gomer!

goof (1): a silly and foolish person. “What a goof you are!”

goof (2): make a mistake. I really goofed on the test today.”

goof off (1): waste time. “Stop goofing off and help me clean the house!”

goof-off (2): someone who wastes time and isn’t serious. “A goof-off never does well in school”

goof up: make a mistake. “Oh no! I really goofed up!

goofy: silly. “Kids always make me feel goofy!

grabbers: hands. “Have you washed your grabbers, Benjamin?”

grand: one thousand dollars. “He’s making over a hundred grand a year!”

grass: marijuana. “Have you ever smoked grass?

grub: food. “Where’s the grub?!

grubby: not clean. “I always feel grubby in the morning.”

grungy: unclean and stinky. “Grungy people are not allowed in Greg’s house!”

gut: a person’s stomach; belly. “Greg is getting a big gut because he loves chocolate ice cream and beer!”

guts (1): courage. “It took a lot of guts to ask his boss for a raise.”

guts (2): the nature of something. “Let’s get to the guts of Greg Sperling!”

hairy: difficult; dangerous. “The steep and windy road was really hairy.

hang a left: make a left turn. “Hang a left at the next corner.”

hang a right: make a right turn. “Hang a right at the next corner.”

head: toilet. “I really need to use the head!

hep: sensible; informed. “She’s a really hep student.”

hickey: a love bite on the skin. “Wow! Is that a hickey on your neck?”

hip: sensible; informed. “He really tries hard to be hip.

hooker [possibly offensive]: prostitute. “You’ll find a lot of hookers in the red light district.”

horny [possibly offensive]: sexually stimulated; in the mood for sex. “Red wine seems to make my boyfriend horny.

hot (1): popular. “Brad Pitt is really hot now.”

hot (2): sexy. “Wow! Cindy Crawford is really hot!

humungous: really big. “American supermarkets are humungous.

hungries, to have: be hungry. “I don’t know about you, but I’ve got the hungries.

hyper: overly excited. “Children often get hyper when they are tired.”

icky: unpleasant. “The food is really icky in the school cafeteria.”

I.D.: identification. “If you want to order a beer, you’ll need your I.D.

I’m outta here: I’m leaving; I’m departing. “Sorry, but I’m outta here, dude.”

in: fashionable. “Ray-Ban sunglasses are really in now.”

ivories: teeth. “Tom Cruise has really beautiful ivories.

jack around [possibly offensive]: waste time. “Will you please stop jacking around?

jam, in a (1): trouble. “If you’re in a jam, I promise to help you.”

jam (2): improvise (musically). “I’d love to jam with Bon Jovi!”

jamming, to be : going well. “Greg’s Angielski Online is really jamming!

jerk: stupid or annoying person. “How could you go out with such a jerk?

jillion: an immense number. “Do you really have a jillion problems?”

jock: someone good at sports. “I’ve never been much of a jock.

john: toilet. “Where’s the john?

K (k): a thousand. “I could retire with 100 K (k)!

kick back: relax and enjoy. “I wish I could kick back at the beach today.”

kick off: die. “My dog finally kicked off.

killer: something exceptional or great. “Wow, your boyfriend is killer!

knock: condemn. “Don’t knock it unless you’ve tried it.”

knockout: beautiful woman; handsome man. “Benjamin is already a knockout!

kook: peculiar person. “Stop acting like a kook!

laid back: relaxed; calm. “I always feel laid back at the beach.”

lame: incompetent. “Greg is really lame when is comes to fixing his car.”

lip: cheeky talk. “My students are always giving me lip!

loser: a bungling and worthless person. “Why are you dating such a loser?

love handles: excess fat around the waist. “Is it possible for Greg to lose his love handles?

luck out: to be lucky or fortunate. “You really luck out by visiting Greg’s Angielski Online!”

make waves: cause problems. “Teachers don’t like students to make waves.

max, to the : maximum. “I’m happy to the max.

mega: big. “American restaurants serve mega portions of food.”

megabucks: a large amount of money. “It takes megabucks to live in Japan.”

mellow: relaxed. “I’m feeling very mellow this evening.”

mickey-mouse: unimportant; time-wasting. “I’m sick of this mickey-mouse job.”

monkey bite: a kiss that leaves a mark on the skin. “I don’t want any monkey bites tonight, okay?”

munch out: to eat voraciously. “Let’s munch out on a large pizza!”

nada: nothing (from Spanish). “I know nada about politics.”

neat: cool; great. “Isn’t my new car neat?

noid: someone that’s paranoid. “Why are you so noid?

nuke (1): nuclear weapon. “This world had too many nukes.

nuke (2): destroy; delete. “Sorry, but I accidentally nuked your e-mail message.”

nuke (3): cook something in the microwave oven. “Can you nuke this frozen pizza for me?”

nut (1): odd or crazy person. “Why are you always acting like a nut?

nut (2): someone passionate about something. “I’m a nut about computers.

nuts [offensive]: testicles. “Don’t ever kick me in the nuts.

okay: decent. “My boss is an okay person.”

OK: decent. “Greg is an okay person.”

pad: someone’s home. “Can I sleep at your pad tonight?”

party: celebrate. “Let’s party tonight!”

party animal: someone that loves parties. “Greg has been known to sometimes be a party animal.

paws: hands. “Get your paws off me!”

peanuts: very little money. “I love my job, but the pay is peanuts.

pee: to urinate. “I always have to pee after drinking beer.”

pickled: drunk. “He got pickled on vodka.”

pig out: eat too much. “Greg is famous for pigging out on chocolate ice cream.”

piss: to urinate. “My dog pissed on me!”

pissed (off): angry; upset. “I’m really pissed (off) at you.”

plastered: drunk. “Why does he always get plastered?

pad: someone’s home. “Can I sleep at your pad tonight?”

poop, the (1): knowledge; information. “What’s the poop on Michael Jackson?”

poop [offensive] (2): defecation; shit. “Be careful not to step on dog poop.

poop out: get tired and quit. “I got pooped out after spending eight hours at Disneyland.”

pot (1): toilet. “Who’s on the pot?

pot (2): marijuana. “It’s easy to buy pot in the big city.”

pro: someone who’s good at something; professional. “She’s really a pro at golf.”

psycho: crazy person. “Stay away from that psycho!

puke: vomit. “Alcohol makes some people puke.

pumped (up): excited. “I’m really pumped (up) about Greg’s Angielski Online!”

puss: the face. “My girlfriend slapped me right on the puss.

quarterback: leader. “Greg is the quarterback of Greg’s Angielski Online.”

quick and dirty: done fast, but not well. “The mechanic did a quick and dirty repair on my car.”

racket (1): noise. “Small kids can make a lot of racket.

racket (2): something that’s dishonest or deceptive. “The Tobacco Industry is quite a racket.

racket (3): an occupation. “I’ve been in the ESL racket for fourteen years.”

rank: give someone a difficult time. “She’s always ranking her teacher.”

rat: a despicable person. “I thought I loved you, but now I know you’re really a rat.

razz: annoy someone. “Will you please stop razzing me?”

rear (end): buttocks. “Greg fell on his rear (end).

riot, a : something or someone very funny. “Jim Carrey is a riot!

rip off (1): stealing. “Someone ripped off my car.”

rip off (2): fraud. “I paid $10,000 for my computer. What a rip off!

rocking: great; excellent. “Greg’s ESL class is really rocking!

rubbish: nonsense; not true. “That rumor is a bunch of rubbish.

rug rat: a child. “Greg has a couple of rug rats at home.”

runs, the: diarrhea. “Oh no! I’ve got the runs!

scarf: to eat. “I can easily scarf an entire banana split.”

screw up: to make a mistake. “I screwed up on the driving test, so I didn’t pass.”

screw-up: a person who makes a mistake. “Why are you such a screw-up?

scum: a despicable individual. “Don’t hang around with that kind of scum.

shades: sunglasses. “Those are really cool shades!

shoot some hoops: play basketball. “Let’s shoot some hoops!

silks: clothing. “Those are really awesome silks!

smarts: intelligence. “It takes a lot of smarts to become a doctor.”

smurfbrain: a dumb or stupid person. “Stop acting like a smurfbrain!

snookered: cheated. “I got snookered into buying swamp land in Florida.”

sofa spud: a person who watches too much television. “I’m usually a sofa spud on Sunday.”

solid (1): really good; cool. “Greg’s Angielski Online is totally solid!

solid (2): consecutive. “It’s been raining for seven solid days.”

specs: eyeglasses. “I didn’t know that you wore specs.

split: to leave. “Let’s split from here now.”

spunk: spirit. “She might be small, but she’s got a lot of spunk.

stoned (out): drunk from drugs or alcohol. “I’m really stoned (out), dude!”

street smart: knowledgeable about city life. “Since Greg is from Los Angeles, he’s very street smart.

suck: to be bad and unacceptable. “That song really sucks!

technicolor yawn, to do a : vomit. “My dog just did a technicolor yawn all over the carpet!”

thou: thousand. “I need to borrow a hundred thou.

threads: clothing. “My wife spent $900 on new threads.

ticker (1): the heart. “My grandfather has a bad ticker.

ticker (2): a watch. “Wow! That’s a really cool ticker!

tints: sunglasses. “You have to wear tints in California.”

totally: really; completely. “That’s totally awesome, dude!”

to the max: maximum. “I studied to the max.

turkey (1): failure; flop. “Thank goodness that Greg’s Angielski Online is not a turkey!

turkey (2): dumb person. “Turkeys are not allowed to work for this company.”

turn-off: something that repulses a person. “Bad breath is a real turn-off.

umpteen: many; countless. “I’ve asked you umpteen times to show me the money!”

unlax: relax. “Greg needs to definitely unlax with his family.”

upchuck: vomit. “She got sick and upchucked three times.”

uptight: nervous; anxious. “Why are you so uptight?

vanilla (1): plain. “She drives a vanilla car.”

vanilla (2): Caucasian. “The Midwest is too vanilla for me.”

wad: roll of money. “It’s dangerous to carry a big wad in your pocket.”

wasted: killed. “A lot of people get wasted in the streets of New York.”

wheels: car; motorcycle. “If you want to live in Los Angeles, you’ve got to get some wheels

whitebread: plain; boring. “Greg’s Angielski Online is definitely not whitebread!

whiz (1): someone who shows a special talent for something. “Einstein was a whiz in Physics.”

whiz [offensive] (2): to urinate. “I really have to take a whiz.

wimpy: weak. “Don’t be so wimpy!

winks, get some: sleep. “I really need to get some winks

wrongo: wrong. “That is totally wrongo!

yank (1): bother; harass. “Stop yanking me, okay?”

Yank (2): a Yankee; an American. “Greg is a Yank.

zero: an unimportant person. “If you don’t work hard, you’ll end up a zero.

zip (1): nothing. “I don’t know zip about you.”

zip (2): energy; vigor. “I need something that will give me more zip.

zit: pimple; acne. “Teens often have a lot of zits.

Kompletna Lista Fobii

A-

Ablutophobia- Fear of washing or bathing.
Acarophobia- Fear of itching or of the insects that cause itching.
Acerophobia- Fear of sourness.
Achluophobia- Fear of darkness.
Acousticophobia- Fear of noise.
Acrophobia- Fear of heights.
Aerophobia- Fear of drafts, air swallowing, or airbourne noxious substances.
Aeroacrophobia- Fear of open high places.
Aeronausiphobia- Fear of vomiting secondary to airsickness.
Agateophobia- Fear of insanity.
Agliophobia- Fear of pain.
Agoraphobia- Fear of open spaces or of being in crowded, public places like markets. Fear of leaving a safe place.
Agraphobia- Fear of sexual abuse.
Agrizoophobia- Fear of wild animals.
Agyrophobia- Fear of streets or crossing the street.
Aichmophobia- Fear of needles or pointed objects.
Ailurophobia- Fear of cats.
Albuminurophobia- Fear of kidney disease.
Alektorophobia- Fear of chickens.
Algophobia- Fear of pain.
Alliumphobia- Fear of garlic.
Allodoxaphobia- Fear of opinions.
Altophobia- Fear of heights.
Amathophobia- Fear of dust.
Amaxophobia- Fear of riding in a car.
Ambulophobia- Fear of walking.
Amnesiphobia- Fear of amnesia.
Amychophobia- Fear of scratches or being scratched.
Anablephobia- Fear of looking up.
Ancraophobia- Fear of wind. (Anemophobia)
Androphobia- Fear of men.
Anemophobia- Fear of air drafts or wind.(Ancraophobia)
Anginophobia- Fear of angina, choking or narrowness.
Anglophobia- Fear of England or English culture, etc.
Angrophobia – Fear of anger or of becoming angry.
Ankylophobia- Fear of immobility of a joint.
Anthrophobia or Anthophobia- Fear of flowers.
Anthropophobia- Fear of people or society.
Antlophobia- Fear of floods.
Anuptaphobia- Fear of staying single.
Apeirophobia- Fear of infinity.
Aphenphosmphobia- Fear of being touched. (Haphephobia)
Apiphobia- Fear of bees.
Apotemnophobia- Fear of persons with amputations.
Arachibutyrophobia- Fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth.
Arachnephobia or Arachnophobia- Fear of spiders.
Arithmophobia- Fear of numbers.
Arrhenphobia- Fear of men.
Arsonphobia- Fear of fire.
Asthenophobia- Fear of fainting or weakness.
Astraphobia or Astrapophobia- Fear of thunder and lightning.(Ceraunophobia, Keraunophobia)
Astrophobia- Fear of stars or celestial space.
Asymmetriphobia- Fear of asymmetrical things.
Ataxiophobia- Fear of ataxia. (muscular incoordination)
Ataxophobia- Fear of disorder or untidiness.
Atelophobia- Fear of imperfection.
Atephobia- Fear of ruin or ruins.
Athazagoraphobia- Fear of being forgotton or ignored or forgetting.
Atomosophobia- Fear of atomic explosions.
Atychiphobia- Fear of failure.
Aulophobia- Fear of flutes.
Aurophobia- Fear of gold.
Auroraphobia- Fear of Northern lights.
Autodysomophobia- Fear of one that has a vile odor.
Automatonophobia- Fear of ventriloquist’s dummies, animatronic creatures, wax statues – anything that falsly represents a sentient being.
Automysophobia- Fear of being dirty.
Autophobia- Fear of being alone or of oneself.
Aviophobia or Aviatophobia- Fear of flying.

B-

Bacillophobia- Fear of microbes.
Bacteriophobia- Fear of bacteria.
Ballistophobia- Fear of missiles or bullets.
Bolshephobia- Fear of Bolsheviks.
Barophobia- Fear of gravity.
Basophobia or Basiphobia- Inability to stand. Fear of walking or falling.
Bathmophobia- Fear of stairs or steep slopes.
Bathophobia- Fear of depth.
Batophobia- Fear of heights or being close to high buildings.
Batrachophobia- Fear of amphibians, such as frogs, newts, salamanders, etc.
Belonephobia- Fear of pins and needles. (Aichmophobia)
Bibliophobia- Fear of books.
Blennophobia- Fear of slime.
Bogyphobia- Fear of bogeys or the bogeyman.
Botanophobia- Fear of plants.
Bromidrosiphobia or Bromidrophobia- Fear of body smells.
Brontophobia- Fear of thunder and lightning.
Bufonophobia- Fear of toads.

C-

Cacophobia- Fear of ugliness.
Cainophobia or Cainotophobia- Fear of newness, novelty.
Caligynephobia- Fear of beautiful women.
Cancerophobia or Carcinophobia- Fear of cancer.
Cardiophobia- Fear of the heart.
Carnophobia- Fear of meat.
Catagelophobia- Fear of being ridiculed.
Catapedaphobia- Fear of jumping from high and low places.
Cathisophobia- Fear of sitting.
Catoptrophobia- Fear of mirrors.
Cenophobia or Centophobia- Fear of new things or ideas.
Ceraunophobia or Keraunophobia- Fear of thunder and lightning.(Astraphobia, Astrapophobia)
Chaetophobia- Fear of hair.
Cheimaphobia or Cheimatophobia- Fear of cold.(Frigophobia, Psychophobia)
Chemophobia- Fear of chemicals or working with chemicals.
Cherophobia- Fear of gaiety.
Chionophobia- Fear of snow.
Chiraptophobia- Fear of being touched.
Chirophobia- Fear of hands.
Cholerophobia- Fear of anger or the fear of cholera.
Chorophobia- Fear of dancing.
Chrometophobia or Chrematophobia- Fear of money.
Chromophobia or Chromatophobia- Fear of colors.
Chronophobia- Fear of time.
Chronomentrophobia- Fear of clocks.
Cibophobia- Fear of food.(Sitophobia, Sitiophobia)
Claustrophobia- Fear of confined spaces.
Cleithrophobia or Cleisiophobia- Fear of being locked in an enclosed place.
Cleptophobia- Fear of stealing.
Climacophobia- Fear of stairs, climbing, or of falling downstairs.
Clinophobia- Fear of going to bed.
Clithrophobia or Cleithrophobia- Fear of being enclosed.
Cnidophobia- Fear of stings.
Cometophobia- Fear of comets.
Coimetrophobia- Fear of cemeteries.
Coitophobia- Fear of coitus.
Contreltophobia- Fear of sexual abuse.
Coprastasophobia- Fear of constipation.
Coprophobia- Fear of feces.
Coulrophobia- Fear of clowns.
Counterphobia- The preference by a phobic for fearful situations.
Cremnophobia- Fear of precipices.
Cryophobia- Fear of extreme cold, ice or frost.
Crystallophobia- Fear of crystals or glass.
Cyberphobia- Fear of computers or working on a computer.
Cyclophobia- Fear of bicycles.
Cymophobia or Kymophobia- Fear of waves or wave like motions.
Cynophobia- Fear of dogs or rabies.
Cypridophobia or Cypriphobia or Cyprianophobia or Cyprinophobia – Fear of prostitutes or venereal disease.

D-

Decidophobia- Fear of making decisions.
Defecaloesiophobia- Fear of painful bowels movements.
Deipnophobia- Fear of dining or dinner conversations.
Dementophobia- Fear of insanity.
Demonophobia or Daemonophobia- Fear of demons.
Demophobia- Fear of crowds. (Agoraphobia)
Dendrophobia- Fear of trees.
Dentophobia- Fear of dentists.
Dermatophobia- Fear of skin lesions.
Dermatosiophobia or Dermatophobia or Dermatopathophobia- Fear of skin disease.
Dextrophobia- Fear of objects at the right side of the body.
Diabetophobia- Fear of diabetes.
Didaskaleinophobia- Fear of going to school.
Dikephobia- Fear of justice.
Dinophobia- Fear of dizziness or whirlpools.
Diplophobia- Fear of double vision.
Dipsophobia- Fear of drinking.
Dishabiliophobia- Fear of undressing in front of someone.
Domatophobia- Fear of houses or being in a house.(Eicophobia, Oikophobia)
Doraphobia- Fear of fur or skins of animals.
Doxophobia- Fear of expressing opinions or of receiving praise.
Dromophobia- Fear of crossing streets.
Dutchphobia- Fear of the Dutch.
Dysmorphophobia- Fear of deformity.
Dystychiphobia- Fear of accidents.

E-

Ecclesiophobia- Fear of church.
Ecophobia- Fear of home.
Eicophobia- Fear of home surroundings.(Domatophobia, Oikophobia)
Eisoptrophobia- Fear of mirrors or of seeing oneself in a mirror.
Electrophobia- Fear of electricity.
Eleutherophobia- Fear of freedom.
Elurophobia- Fear of cats. (Ailurophobia)
Emetophobia- Fear of vomiting.
Enetophobia- Fear of pins.
Enochlophobia- Fear of crowds.
Enosiophobia or Enissophobia- Fear of having committed an unpardonable sin or of criticism.
Entomophobia- Fear of insects.
Eosophobia- Fear of dawn or daylight.
Ephebiphobia- Fear of teenagers.
Epistaxiophobia- Fear of nosebleeds.
Epistemophobia- Fear of knowledge.
Equinophobia- Fear of horses.
Eremophobia- Fear of being oneself or of lonliness.
Ereuthrophobia- Fear of blushing.
Ergasiophobia- 1) Fear of work or functioning. 2) Surgeon’s fear of operating.
Ergophobia- Fear of work.
Erotophobia- Fear of sexual love or sexual questions.
Euphobia- Fear of hearing good news.
Eurotophobia- Fear of female genitalia.
Erythrophobia or Erytophobia or Ereuthophobia- 1) Fear of redlights. 2) Blushing. 3) Red.

F-

Febriphobia or Fibriphobia or Fibriophobia- Fear of fever.
Felinophobia- Fear of cats. (Ailurophobia, Elurophobia, Galeophobia, Gatophobia)
Francophobia- Fear of France or French culture. (Gallophobia, Galiophobia)
Frigophobia- Fear of cold or cold things.(Cheimaphobia, Cheimatophobia, Psychrophobia)

G-

Galeophobia or Gatophobia- Fear of cats.
Gallophobia or Galiophobia- Fear France or French culture. (Francophobia)
Gamophobia- Fear of marriage.
Geliophobia- Fear of laughter.
Geniophobia- Fear of chins.
Genophobia- Fear of sex.
Genuphobia- Fear of knees.
Gephyrophobia or Gephydrophobia or Gephysrophobia- Fear of crossing bridges.
Germanophobia- Fear of Germany or German culture.
Gerascophobia- Fear of growing old.
Gerontophobia- Fear of old people or of growing old.
Geumaphobia or Geumophobia- Fear of taste.
Glossophobia- Fear of speaking in public or of trying to speak.
Gnosiophobia- Fear of knowledge.
Graphophobia- Fear of writing or handwriting.
Gymnophobia- Fear of nudity.
Gynephobia or Gynophobia- Fear of women.

H-

Hadephobia- Fear of hell.
Hagiophobia- Fear of saints or holy things.
Hamartophobia- Fear of sinning.
Haphephobia or Haptephobia- Fear of being touched.
Harpaxophobia- Fear of being robbed.
Hedonophobia- Fear of feeling pleasure.
Heliophobia- Fear of the sun.
Hellenologophobia- Fear of Greek terms or complex scientific terminology.
Helminthophobia- Fear of being infested with worms.
Hemophobia or Hemaphobia or Hematophobia- Fear of blood.
Heresyphobia or Hereiophobia- Fear of challenges to official doctrine or of radical deviation.
Herpetophobia- Fear of reptiles or creepy, crawly things.
Heterophobia- Fear of the opposite sex. (Sexophobia)
Hierophobia- Fear of priests or sacred things.
Hippophobia- Fear of horses.
Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia- Fear of long words.
Hobophobia- Fear of bums or beggars.
Hodophobia- Fear of road travel.
Hormephobia- Fear of shock.
Homichlophobia- Fear of fog.
Homilophobia- Fear of sermons.
Hominophobia- Fear of men.
Homophobia- Fear of sameness, monotony or of homosexuality or of becoming homosexual.
Hoplophobia- Fear of firearms.
Hydrargyophobia- Fear of mercurial medicines.
Hydrophobia- Fear of water or of rabies.
Hydrophobophobia- Fear of rabies.
Hyelophobia or Hyalophobia- Fear of glass.
Hygrophobia- Fear of liquids, dampness, or moisture.
Hylephobia- Fear of materialism or the fear of epilepsy.
Hylophobia- Fear of forests.
Hypengyophobia or Hypegiaphobia- Fear of responsibility.
Hypnophobia- Fear of sleep or of being hypnotized.
Hypsiphobia- Fear of height.

I-

Iatrophobia- Fear of going to the doctor or of doctors.
Ichthyophobia- Fear of fish.
Ideophobia- Fear of ideas.
Illyngophobia- Fear of vertigo or feeling dizzy when looking down.
Iophobia- Fear of poison.
Insectophobia – Fear of insects.
Isolophobia- Fear of solitude, being alone.
Isopterophobia- Fear of termites, insects that eat wood.
Ithyphallophobia- Fear of seeing, thinking about or having an erect penis.

J-

Japanophobia- Fear of Japanese.
Judeophobia- Fear of Jews.

K-

Kainolophobia or Kainophobia- Fear of anything new, novelty.
Kakorrhaphiophobia- Fear of failure or defeat.
Katagelophobia- Fear of ridicule.
Kathisophobia- Fear of sitting down.
Kenophobia- Fear of voids or empty spaces.
Keraunophobia or Ceraunophobia- Fear of thunder and lightning.(Astraphobia, Astrapophobia)
Kinetophobia or Kinesophobia- Fear of movement or motion.
Kleptophobia- Fear of stealing.
Koinoniphobia- Fear of rooms.
Kolpophobia- Fear of genitals, particularly female.
Kopophobia- Fear of fatigue.
Koniophobia- Fear of dust. (Amathophobia)
Kosmikophobia- Fear of cosmic phenomenon.
Kymophobia- Fear of waves. (Cymophobia)
Kynophobia- Fear of rabies.
Kyphophobia- Fear of stooping.

L-

Lachanophobia- Fear of vegetables.
Laliophobia or Lalophobia- Fear of speaking.
Leprophobia or Lepraphobia- Fear of leprosy.
Leukophobia- Fear of the color white.
Levophobia- Fear of things to the left side of the body.
Ligyrophobia- Fear of loud noises.
Lilapsophobia- Fear of tornadoes and hurricanes.
Limnophobia- Fear of lakes.
Linonophobia- Fear of string.
Liticaphobia- Fear of lawsuits.
Lockiophobia- Fear of childbirth.
Logizomechanophobia- Fear of computers.
Logophobia- Fear of words.
Luiphobia- Fear of lues, syphillis.
Lutraphobia- Fear of otters.
Lygophobia- Fear of darkness.
Lyssophobia- Fear of rabies or of becoming mad.

M-

Macrophobia- Fear of long waits.
Mageirocophobia- Fear of cooking.
Maieusiophobia- Fear of childbirth.
Malaxophobia- Fear of love play. (Sarmassophobia)
Maniaphobia- Fear of insanity.
Mastigophobia- Fear of punishment.
Mechanophobia- Fear of machines.
Medomalacuphobia- Fear of losing an erection.
Medorthophobia- Fear of an erect penis.
Megalophobia- Fear of large things.
Melissophobia- Fear of bees.
Melanophobia- Fear of the color black.
Melophobia- Fear or hatred of music.
Meningitophobia- Fear of brain disease.
Menophobia- Fear of menstruation.
Merinthophobia- Fear of being bound or tied up.
Metallophobia- Fear of metal.
Metathesiophobia- Fear of changes.
Meteorophobia- Fear of meteors.
Methyphobia- Fear of alcohol.
Metrophobia- Fear or hatred of poetry.
Microbiophobia- Fear of microbes. (Bacillophobia)
Microphobia- Fear of small things.
Misophobia or Mysophobia- Fear of being contaminated with dirt or germs.
Mnemophobia- Fear of memories.
Molysmophobia or Molysomophobia- Fear of dirt or contamination.
Monophobia- Fear of solitude or being alone.
Monopathophobia- Fear of definite disease.
Motorphobia- Fear of automobiles.
Mottephobia- Fear of moths.
Musophobia or Muriphobia- Fear of mice.
Mycophobia- Fear or aversion to mushrooms.
Mycrophobia- Fear of small things.
Myctophobia- Fear of darkness.
Myrmecophobia- Fear of ants.
Mythophobia- Fear of myths or stories or false statements.
Myxophobia- Fear of slime. (Blennophobia)

N-

Nebulaphobia- Fear of fog. (Homichlophobia)
Necrophobia- Fear of death or dead things.
Nelophobia- Fear of glass.
Neopharmaphobia- Fear of new drugs.
Neophobia- Fear of anything new.
Nephophobia- Fear of clouds.
Noctiphobia- Fear of the night.
Nomatophobia- Fear of names.
Nosocomephobia- Fear of hospitals.
Nosophobia or Nosemaphobia- Fear of becoming ill.
Nostophobia- Fear of returning home.
Novercaphobia- Fear of your step-mother.
Nucleomituphobia- Fear of nuclear weapons.
Nudophobia- Fear of nudity.
Numerophobia- Fear of numbers.
Nyctohylophobia- Fear of dark wooded areas or of forests at night
Nyctophobia- Fear of the dark or of night.

O-

Obesophobia- Fear of gaining weight.(Pocrescophobia)
Ochlophobia- Fear of crowds or mobs.
Ochophobia- Fear of vehicles.
Octophobia – Fear of the figure 8.
Odontophobia- Fear of teeth or dental surgery.
Odynophobia or Odynephobia- Fear of pain. (Algophobia)
Oenophobia- Fear of wines.
Oikophobia- Fear of home surroundings, house.(Domatophobia, Eicophobia)
Olfactophobia- Fear of smells.
Ombrophobia- Fear of rain or of being rained on.
Ommetaphobia or Ommatophobia- Fear of eyes.
Oneirophobia- Fear of dreams.
Oneirogmophobia- Fear of wet dreams.
Onomatophobia- Fear of hearing a certain word or of names.
Ophidiophobia- Fear of snakes. (Snakephobia)
Ophthalmophobia- Fear of being stared at.
Opiophobia- Fear medical doctors experience of prescribing needed pain medications for patients.
Optophobia- Fear of opening one’s eyes.
Ornithophobia- Fear of birds.
Orthophobia- Fear of property.
Osmophobia or Osphresiophobia- Fear of smells or odors.
Ostraconophobia- Fear of shellfish.
Ouranophobia or Uranophobia- Fear of heaven.

P-

Pagophobia- Fear of ice or frost.
Panthophobia- Fear of suffering and disease.
Panophobia or Pantophobia- Fear of everything.
Papaphobia- Fear of the Pope.
Papyrophobia- Fear of paper.
Paralipophobia- Fear of neglecting duty or responsibility.
Paraphobia- Fear of sexual perversion.
Parasitophobia- Fear of parasites.
Paraskavedekatriaphobia- Fear of Friday the 13th.
Parthenophobia- Fear of virgins or young girls.
Pathophobia- Fear of disease.
Patroiophobia- Fear of heredity.
Parturiphobia- Fear of childbirth.
Peccatophobia- Fear of sinning or imaginary crimes.
Pediculophobia- Fear of lice.
Pediophobia- Fear of dolls.
Pedophobia- Fear of children.
Peladophobia- Fear of bald people.
Pellagrophobia- Fear of pellagra.
Peniaphobia- Fear of poverty.
Pentheraphobia- Fear of mother-in-law. (Novercaphobia)
Phagophobia- Fear of swallowing or of eating or of being eaten.
Phalacrophobia- Fear of becoming bald.
Phallophobia- Fear of a penis, esp erect.
Pharmacophobia- Fear of taking medicine.
Phasmophobia- Fear of ghosts.
Phengophobia- Fear of daylight or sunshine.
Philemaphobia or Philematophobia- Fear of kissing.
Philophobia- Fear of falling in love or being in love.
Philosophobia- Fear of philosophy.
Phobophobia- Fear of phobias.
Photoaugliaphobia- Fear of glaring lights.
Photophobia- Fear of light.
Phonophobia- Fear of noises or voices or one’s own voice; of telephones.
Phronemophobia- Fear of thinking.
Phthiriophobia- Fear of lice. (Pediculophobia)
Phthisiophobia- Fear of tuberculosis.
Placophobia- Fear of tombstones.
Plutophobia- Fear of wealth.
Pluviophobia- Fear of rain or of being rained on.
Pneumatiphobia- Fear of spirits.
Pnigophobia or Pnigerophobia- Fear of choking of being smothered.
Pocrescophobia- Fear of gaining weight. (Obesophobia)
Pogonophobia- Fear of beards.
Poliosophobia- Fear of contracting poliomyelitis.
Politicophobia- Fear or abnormal dislike of politicians.
Polyphobia- Fear of many things.
Poinephobia- Fear of punishment.
Ponophobia- Fear of overworking or of pain.
Porphyrophobia- Fear of the color purple.
Potamophobia- Fear of rivers or running water.
Potophobia- Fear of alcohol.
Pharmacophobia- Fear of drugs.
Proctophobia- Fear of rectums.
Prosophobia- Fear of progress.
Psellismophobia- Fear of stuttering.
Psychophobia- Fear of mind.
Psychrophobia- Fear of cold.
Pteromerhanophobia- Fear of flying.
Pteronophobia- Fear of being tickled by feathers.
Pupaphobia – Fear of puppets.
Pyrexiophobia- Fear of Fever.
Pyrophobia- Fear of fire.

Q-

R-

Radiophobia- Fear of radiation, x-rays.
Ranidaphobia- Fear of frogs.
Rectophobia- Fear of rectum or rectal diseases.
Rhabdophobia- Fear of being severely punished or beaten by a rod, or of being severely criticized. Also fear of magic.(wand)
Rhypophobia- Fear of defecation.
Rhytiphobia- Fear of getting wrinkles.
Rupophobia- Fear of dirt.
Russophobia- Fear of Russians.

S-

Samhainophobia: Fear of Halloween.
Sarmassophobia- Fear of love play. (Malaxophobia)
Satanophobia- Fear of Satan.
Scabiophobia- Fear of scabies.
Scatophobia- Fear of fecal matter.
Scelerophibia- Fear of bad men, burglars.
Sciophobia Sciaphobia- Fear of shadows.
Scoleciphobia- Fear of worms.
Scolionophobia- Fear of school.
Scopophobia or Scoptophobia- Fear of being seen or stared at.
Scotomaphobia- Fear of blindness in visual field.
Scotophobia- Fear of darkness. (Achluophobia)
Scriptophobia- Fear of writing in public.
Selachophobia- Fear of sharks.
Selaphobia- Fear of light flashes.
Selenophobia- Fear of the moon.
Seplophobia- Fear of decaying matter.
Sesquipedalophobia- Fear of long words.
Sexophobia- Fear of the opposite sex. (Heterophobia)
Siderodromophobia- Fear of trains, railroads or train travel.
Siderophobia- Fear of stars.
Sinistrophobia- Fear of things to the left or left-handed.
Sinophobia- Fear of Chinese, Chinese culture.
Sitophobia or Sitiophobia- Fear of food or eating. (Cibophobia)
Snakephobia- Fear of snakes. (Ophidiophobia)
Soceraphobia- Fear of parents-in-law.
Social Phobia- Fear of being evaluated negatively in social situations.
Sociophobia- Fear of society or people in general.
Somniphobia- Fear of sleep.
Sophophobia- Fear of learning.
Soteriophobia – Fear of dependence on others.
Spacephobia- Fear of outer space.
Spectrophobia- Fear of specters or ghosts.
Spermatophobia or Spermophobia- Fear of germs.
Spheksophobia- Fear of wasps.
Stasibasiphobia or Stasiphobia- Fear of standing or walking. (Ambulophobia)
Staurophobia- Fear of crosses or the crucifix.
Stenophobia- Fear of narrow things or places.
Stygiophobia or Stigiophobia- Fear of hell.
Suriphobia- Fear of mice.
Symbolophobia- Fear of symbolism.
Symmetrophobia- Fear of symmetry.
Syngenesophobia- Fear of relatives.
Syphilophobia- Fear of syphilis.

T-

Tachophobia- Fear of speed.
Taeniophobia or Teniophobia- Fear of tapeworms.
Taphephobia Taphophobia- Fear of being buried alive or of cemeteries.
Tapinophobia- Fear of being contagious.
Taurophobia- Fear of bulls.
Technophobia- Fear of technology.
Teleophobia- 1) Fear of definite plans. 2) Religious ceremony.
Telephonophobia- Fear of telephones.
Teratophobia- Fear of bearing a deformed child or fear of monsters or deformed people.
Testophobia- Fear of taking tests.
Tetanophobia- Fear of lockjaw, tetanus.
Teutophobia- Fear of German or German things.
Textophobia- Fear of certain fabrics.
Thaasophobia- Fear of sitting.
Thalassophobia- Fear of the sea.
Thanatophobia or Thantophobia- Fear of death or dying.
Theatrophobia- Fear of theatres.
Theologicophobia- Fear of theology.
Theophobia- Fear of gods or religion.
Thermophobia- Fear of heat.
Tocophobia- Fear of pregnancy or childbirth.
Tomophobia- Fear of surgical operations.
Tonitrophobia- Fear of thunder.
Topophobia- Fear of certain places or situations, such as stage fright.
Toxiphobia or Toxophobia or Toxicophobia- Fear of poison or of being accidently poisoned.
Traumatophobia- Fear of injury.
Tremophobia- Fear of trembling.
Trichinophobia- Fear of trichinosis.
Trichopathophobia or Trichophobia- Fear of hair. (Chaetophobia, Hypertrichophobia)
Triskaidekaphobia- Fear of the number 13.
Tropophobia- Fear of moving or making changes.
Trypanophobia- Fear of injections.
Tuberculophobia- Fear of tuberculosis.
Tyrannophobia- Fear of tyrants.

U-

Uranophobia or Ouranophobia- Fear of heaven.
Urophobia- Fear of urine or urinating.

V-

Vaccinophobia- Fear of vaccination.
Venustraphobia- Fear of beautiful women.
Verbophobia- Fear of words.
Verminophobia- Fear of germs.
Vestiphobia- Fear of clothing.
Virginitiphobia- Fear of rape.
Vitricophobia- Fear of step-father.

W-

Walloonphobia- Fear of the Walloons.
Wiccaphobia: Fear of witches and witchcraft.

X-

Xanthophobia- Fear of the color yellow or the word yellow.
Xenoglossophobia- Fear of foreign languages.
Xenophobia- Fear of strangers or foreigners.
Xerophobia- Fear of dryness.
Xylophobia- 1) Fear of wooden objects. 2) Forests.
Xyrophobia-Fear of razors.

Y-

Z-

Zelophobia- Fear of jealousy.
Zeusophobia- Fear of God or gods.
Zemmiphobia- Fear of the great mole rat.
Zoophobia- Fear of animals.

Angielsko-polski słowniczek terminów fitosanitarnych


Additional declaration
Deklaracja dodatkowa
Antagonist*
Antagonistyczny gatunek/antagonista*
Area
Obszar
Area endangered
Obszar zagrożony
Area of low pest prevalance*
Obszar o niskim stopniu nasilenia/liczebności agrofaga*
Authority*
Władze/Urząd*
Bark-free wood
Drewno wolne od kory
Biological control agent*
Czynnik zwalczania biologicznego*
Biological control (Biocontrol)*
Zwalczanie biologiczne*
Biological pesticide*
(Biopesticide)
Biologiczny środek ochrony roślin*
Buffer zone*
Strefa buforowa*
Bulbs and tubers
Cebule i bulwy
Certificate
Świadectwo
Chemical pressure
impregnation
Chemiczna impregnacja pod ciśnieniem
Classical biological control*
Klasyczne zwalczanie biologiczne*
Clearance (of a consignment)
Odprawa (przesyłki)
Commission*
Komisja*
Commodity
Towar
Commodity class
 Klasa towaru
Commodity pest list
Wykaz agrofagów związanych z towarem
Competitor*
Konkurencyjny gatunek/konkurent*
Compliance procedure
(for a consignment)
Procedura kontroli zgodności (przesyłki)
Consignment
Przesyłka
Consignment in transit
Przesyłka w tranzycie
Containment
Powstrzymywanie
Contaminating pest
Agrofag zanieczyszczający
Contamination
Zanieczyszczenie
Control (of a pest)
Zwalczanie (agrofaga)
Controlled area
Obszar kontrolowany
Control point
Punkt kontrolny
Country of origin
(of a consignment of plant products)
Kraj pochodzenia
(przesyłki produktów roślinnych)
Country of origin
(of a consignment of plants)
Kraj pochodzenia (przesyłki roślin)
Country of origin
(of regulated articles other than plants and plant products)
Kraj pochodzenia (przedmiotów podlegających przepisom
innym niż rośliny i produkty roślinne)
Cut flowers and branches
Kwiaty cięte i gałęzie
Debarking
Okorowanie
Delimiting survey
Poszukiwanie w celu ustalenia zasięgu/Ustalanie zasięgu
Detection survey
Poszukiwanie w celu wykrycia/Wykrywanie
Detention
Zatrzymanie
Devitalization
Dewitalizacja
Dunnage
Drewno sztauerskie
Ecoarea*
Ekoobszar*
Ecosytem*
Ekosystem*
Emergency action
Akcja natychmiastowa
Emergency measure
Środek natychmiastowy
Endangered area
Obszar zagrożony
Entry (of a consignment)
Wprowadzenie/wwóz (przesyłki)
Entry (of a pest)
Przeniknięcie/wwóz (agrofaga)
Equivalence
Równoważność
Eradication
Wyniszczenie/eradykacja
Establishment
Zasiedlenie
Establishment
(of biological control agent)
Zasiedlenie (czynnika zwalczania biologicznego)*
Exotic*
Egzotyczny*
Field
Pole
Find free
Uznać za wolny
Find free (of a consignment, field or place of production)
Uznać za wolną/e (przesyłkę, pole lub miejsce produkcji)
Fresh
Świeży
Fruits and vegetables
Owoce i warzywa
Fumigation
Fumigacja
Germplasm
Zasoby genowe
Grain
Ziarno
Growing medium
Podłoże uprawowe
Growing period (of a plant species)
Pora/okres wegetacji(gatunku rośliny)
Growing season
Sezon wegetacyjny
Harmonization
Harmonizacja
Harmonized phytosanitary
measures*
Zharmonizowane środki fitosanitarne*
Heat treatment
Zabieg termiczny
Hitch-hiker pest
Agrofag przypadkowy
Host pest list
Wykaz agrofagów rośliny żywicielskiej
Host range
Zakres żywicieli
Import permit
Zezwolenie importowe
Import permit
(of a biological control agent)*
Zezwolenie importowe (czynnika zwalczania biologicznego)*
Incursion
Wtargnięcie
Infestation (of a commodity)
Opanowanie/porażenie (towaru)
Inspection
Lustracja
Inspector
Inspektor
Intended use
Zamierzone użycie
Interception (of a consignment)
Przechwycenie (przesyłki)
Interception (of a pest)
Przechwycenie (agrofaga)
Intermediate qurantine
Kwarantanna pośrednia
International Plant Protection Convention
Międzynarodowa Konwencja Ochrony Roślin
International Standard
for Phytosanitary Measures
Międzynarodowy Standard dla Środków Fitosanitarnych
International standards*
Standardy międzynarodowe*
Introduction
Zawleczenie/introdukcja
Introduction
(of a biological control agent)*
Introdukcja/wprowadzenie
(czynnika zwalczania biologicznego)*
Inundative release*
Uwolnienie zalewające*
IPPC
Skrót ang. “Międzynarodowa Konwencja Ochrony Roślin”
ISPM
Skrót ang. “Międzynarodowy Standard dla Środków
Fitosanitarnych”
Kiln drying
Suszenie komorowe
Legislation*
Prawodawstwo/przepisy prawne*
Lot
Partia towaru
Mark
Znak
Microorganism*
Mikroorganizm*
Monitoring
Monitoring
Monitoring survey
Poszukiwanie monitoringowe
National Plant Protection Organization
Państwowa Organizacja Ochrony Roślin
Natural enemy*
Wróg naturalny*
Natural occurring*
Występowanie naturalne*
Non-quarantine pest
Agrofag niekwarantannowy
NPPO
Skrót ang. “Państwowa Organizacja Ochrony Roślin”
Occurrence
Występowanie
Official
Urzędowy
Official control
Urzędowe zwalczanie
Organism*
Organizm*
Outbreak
Pojaw
Parasite*
Pasożyt*
Parasitoid*
Parazytoid*
Pathogen
Patogen*
Pathway
Droga przenikania
Pest
Agrofag (szkodnik, choroba, chwast)
Pest categorization
Kategoryzacja agrofaga
Pest free area
Obszar wolny od agrofaga
Pest free place of production*
Miejsce produkcji wolne od agrofaga*
Pest free production site*
Punkt produkcji wolny od agrofaga*
Pest record
Informacja o wystąpieniu lub występowaniu agrofaga
Pest risk analysis
Analiza zagrożenia agrofagiem
Pest risk assessment
(for quarantine pests)
Ocena zagrożenia agrofagiem kwarantannowym
Pest risk management
(for quarantine pests)
Postępowanie w przypadku zagrożenia agrofagiem
kwarantannowym
Pest status (in an area)
Status agrofaga (na obszarze)
PFA
Skrót ang. “Obszar wolny od agrofaga”
Phytosanitary action
Działanie fitosanitarne
Phytosanitary certificate
Świadectwo fitosanitarne
Phytosanitary certification
Certyfikacja fitosanitarna
Phytosanitary legislation
Prawodawstwo/przepisy fitosanitarne
Phytosanitary measure
Środek fitosanitarny (interpretacja uzgodniona)
Phytosanitary procedure
Postępowanie/procedura fitosanitarna
Phytosanitary regulation
Przepis fitosanitarny
Place of production
Miejsce produkcji
Plant pest
Agrofag/szkodnik, choroba, chwast roślin i produktów
roślinnych
Plant products
Produkty roślinne
Plant protection organization
(national)
Organizacja ochrony roślin (państwowa)
Plant quarantine
Kwarantanna roślin
Planting (including replanting)
Sadzenie (włączając przesadzanie)
Plants
Rośliny
Plants for planting
Rośliny do sadzenia/sadzonki
Plants in vitro
Rośliny in vitro
Point of entry
Punkt wprowadzenia/wwozu
Post entry quarantine
Kwarantanna po wprowadzeniu/wwozie lub przeniknięciu
PRA
Skrót ang. “Analiza zagrożenia agrofagiem”
PRA area
Obszar PRA
Practically free*
Praktycznie wolne*
Pre-clearance
Odprawa wstępna
Predator*
Drapieżca*
Processed wood material
Drewno przetworzone
Prohibition
Zakaz
Protected area
Obszar chroniony
Provisional measure
Środek tymczasowy
Quarantine
Kwarantanna
Quarantine area
Obszar objęty kwarantanną
Quarantine
(of a biological control agent)*
Kwarantanna (czynnika zwalczania biologicznego)*
Quarantine pest
Agrofag kwarantannowy/agrofag podlegający obowiązkowi zwalczania
Quarantine station
Stacja kwarantannowa
Raw wood
Drewno surowe
Re-exported consignment
Przesyłka re-eksportowana
Refusal
Zwrot/odmowa
Regional Plant Protection
Organization
Regionalna Organizacja Ochrony Roślin
Regional standards
Standardy regionalne
Regulated area
Obszar podlegający przepisom
Regulated article
Przedmiot podlegający przepisom
Regulated non-quarantine pest
Agrofag niekwarantannowy podlegający przepisom
Regulated pest
Agrofag podlegający przepisom
Release (into the environment)*
Uwolnienie (do środowiska)*
Release (of a consignment)
Zezwolenie (na wprowadzenie/wwóz przesyłki)
Replanting
Przesadzanie
Restriction
Ograniczenie
RNQP
Skrót ang. “Agrofag niekwarantannowy podlegający
przepisom”
Round wood
Drewno okrągłe/okrąglaki/bale drewniane
RPPO
Skrót ang. “Regionalna Organizacja Ochrony Roślin”
Sawn wood
Drewno przetarte
Secretary*
Sekretariat*
Seeds
Nasiona
Specificity*
Specyficzność/swoistość*
Spread
Rozprzestrzenianie
Standard
Standard
Stored product
Produkt przechowywany
Suppresion
Stłumienie/obniżenie liczebności
Surveillance
Nadzór
Survey
Poszukiwanie
Systems approach(es)
Podejście systemowe
Technically justified
Technicznie uzasadniony
Test
Test/analiza
Transience*
Przejściowa obecność*
Transit
Tranzyt
Transparency
Przejrzystość
Treatment
Zabieg
Wood
Drewno
Wood packaging material
Drewniany materiał opakowaniowy
* termin o specjalnym zastosowaniu w Konwencji IPPC
** uzgodniona interpretacja odnosi termin “środek fitosanitarny (ang. phytosanitary measure)” także do agrofagów niekwarantannowych podlegających przepisom, czego brak jest w definicji w Artykule II IPPC (1997).

Potentially Confusing And Embarrassing Differences between Am and Br English

Potentially Confusing And Embarrassing Differences between American and British English

We speak English in the UK.

So do you in the US.

But yet we don’t speak the same language.

David Barton

Dept. of Geological Sciences, Durham University, South Road,
Durham, United Kingdom, DH1 3LE

d.j.barton [at] durham.ac.uk


David Barton maintains an extensive list of
Words That Could Be Confusing And Embarrassing In The UK & US
See the complete list at http://www.systms.demon.co.uk/ukus.htm.


It was said by Sir George Bernard Shaw that ‘England and America are two countries separated by the same language’. My first personal experience of this was when I worked as a camp counsellor for two months in 1993 in a Summer Camp run by the Boy Scouts of America, as part of an international leader exchange scheme. Before I went, all the participants in the scheme were given a lecture by an American woman in Baden Powell House (the world headquarters of the Scout Movement) in South Kensington, London. We were told what to do, say and expect of the United States. As part of the talk, we were given a short list of words that are in common use in the UK which Americans would either be confused by or would even offend them. I memorised the words and thought ‘I’ll cope’.

When I finally arrived in the States three months later, I realised that perhaps a lifetime of watching American television and a half hour speech were not adequate preparation for appreciating and coping with the differences between American and British speech. In the first hour of arriving at the camp I was exposed to High School American English, Black American English and the American English spoken by Joe Q. Public, all very different to each other. Needless to say, I did cope in the end. I found the Americans I met to be very welcoming and helpful and were patient with me when I made a social faux pas when I used an inappropriate word or phrase.

 

Upon my return I began to wonder whether anyone had documented the differences between American and British English. I found several books on the subject but often these were written in a dry and academic way. I felt that I could do better and use my sense of humour and personal experiences to help people from both sides of Atlantic to communicate more effectively when they meet.

 

My research into the subject led me to several conclusions. Firstly, American English and British English are converging thanks to increased transatlantic travel and the media. The movement of slang words is mostly eastwards, though a few words from the UK (particularly defamatory words like ‘wanker’ – the slang word for an onanist) have been adopted by the more anglocentric Ivy League fraternities. This convergent trend is a recent one dating from the emergence of Hollywood as the predominant film making centre in the world and also from the Second World War when large numbers of American GIs were stationed in the UK. This trend was consolidated by the advent of television. Before then, it was thought that American English and British English would diverge as the two languages evolved and absorbed words brought to their respective countries by immigrants and their colonies.

 

In 1789, Noah Webster, in whose name American dictionaries are still published in to this day, stated that:

 

‘Numerous local causes, such as a new country, new associations of people, new combinations of ideas in arts and some intercourse with tribes wholly unknown in Europe will introduce new words into the American tongue.’

 

He was right, but his next statement has since been proved to be incorrect.

 

‘These causes will produce in the course of time a language in North America as different from the future language of England as the modern Dutch, Danish and Swedish are from the German or from one another’.

 

Webster had under-rated the amount of social intercourse between England and her former colony. Even before Webster had started to compile his dictionary, words and expressions had returned from the Americas and had infiltrated the mother tongue, for example ‘bluff’, ‘canoe’, and ‘hatchet’. Very few people in Britain realise how many of the words they use are of American origin. Often this importation of American words has encountered a linguistic snobbery by the British, which was a manifestation of the cultural snobbery that bedevilled Anglo-American relationships for a long time. This is not, thankfully, the case now.

 

Secondly, there are some generalisations that can be made about American and British English which reveal the nature of the two nations and their peoples. British speech tends to be less general, and directed more, in nuances of meaning, at a sub group of the population. This can become a kind of code, in which few words are spoken because each, along with its attendant murmurings and pauses, carries a wealth of shared assumptions and attitudes. In other words, the British are preoccupied with their social status within society and speak and act accordingly to fit into the social class they aspire to. This is particularly evident when talking to someone from ‘the middle class’ when they point out that they are ‘upper middle class’ rather than ‘middle middle class’ or (God Forbid) ‘lower middle class’. John Major (the current UK Prime Minister) may have said that we are now living in a ‘classless society’ but the class system still prevails. At the moment both he and the Leader of the Opposition, Tony Blair, are talking about capturing the ‘middle England, middle class vote’ as the key to winning the next general election.

 

American speech tends to be influenced by the over-heated language of much of the media, which is designed to attach an impression of exciting activity to passive, if sometimes insignificant events. For example, ‘firing off a letter’ and ‘grabbing some lunch’. Yet, curiously, really violent activity and life changing events are hidden in bland antiseptic tones that serve to disguise the reality. Two examples come readily to mind – the US Military with their ‘friendly fire’ and ‘collateral damages’ and the business world with their ‘downsizing’. British people tend to understatement whereas Americans towards hyperbole. A Briton might respond to a suggestion with a word such as ‘Terrific!’ only if they are expressing rapturous enthusiasm, whereas an American might use the word merely to signify polite assent.

 

The American language has less regard than the British for grammatical form, and will happily bulldoze its way across distinctions rather than steer a path between them. American English will casually use one form of a word for another, for example turning nouns into verbs (e.g. ‘author’ a book) and verbs and nouns into adjectives. In Britain, a disrespect for grammatical rules, particularly amongst the middle classes, would immediately reveal you to be ‘not one of us’. Listening to listener feedback programmes on Radio 4 (one of the radio stations run by the British Broadcasting Corporation or BBC) would reveal this. People actually write into complain about grammatical mistakes made by news presenters!

 

Amongst young British people, this is not necessarily the case. British teenagers have long been accused of being poorly educated by politicians, parents and employers since they have little regard for grammar in their speech. As a consequence of American culture and speech patterns being commonplace on children’s television programmes in the UK, I have noted that most young British children of my acquaintance now play with their toys in an American accent with the attendant syntax and grammatical structures. American teenagers have taken this disregard for grammatical form one step further and have almost abandoned syntax altogether. For example, a teenage girl might describe the time she met her new boyfriend by saying ‘I looked at him and I was, like, whoa!’.

 

In my list (and in the sample below) I have described the words which cause the most confusion when a British subject and a United States citizen meet. I have chosen words that are used by all members of American society – or at least to the best of my knowledge. In the corresponding British slang, the words listed are used by Britons irrespective of social class, background or geographical location, unless I have stated otherwise. I have discovered from feedback about my web page that Americans on the Eastern Coast are exposed to more British culture through television and plays and, as a consequence, know, understand and use a greater number of British slang words than their counterparts in the Mid-West and on the West Coast.


The complete list is available at: http://www.dur.ac.uk/~dgl3djb/ukus.html

Please send further suggestions for Anglo-American Confusions to:

 


The List

Anglo-american relations. Ask the average American what they think England is like and they may paint some romanticised image of Royalty, cricket, people who speak like the Queen / Dick Van Dyke, castles and their friend Bob who lives in London. When they get here they often disappointed to discover that England is smaller and damper than they expected and the sad fact that not every Englishman knows their friend Bob. Also, we don’t have Twinkies, the Queen is never in and the house that Auntie Nellie lived in before she emigrated to the US has been knocked down and been replaced by a multistorey car park. Despite all this, millions of you guys visit our country and we are very glad to see you. A word of warning though. Some English people seem to think it is absolutely hilarious hearing Americans mispronounce place names. To spoil their little game here are some handy hints. Firstly, Leicester is prononced ‘Lester’. Secondly, in place names like Birmingham and Durham the ‘ham’ is pronounced ‘um’ (e.g. Durham is pronounced Dur-um). Thirdly, Reading, the city, is pronounced ‘redding’. Finally, Fowey is pronounced ‘foy’. Unfortunately there are many others – too many to list here…

 

Billion. In the US a thousand million. In the UK a thousand times that amount. As a consequence there are considerably more US billion dollar industries than there are UK billion pound ones despite the exchange rate.

 

Bomb. Imagine you are a composer of musicals. Your latest magnum opus has just opened simultaneously in the West End of London and on Broadway. The reviews on both sides of the Atlantic have described your production as ‘a bomb’. In the US, if the production was described as a ‘bomb’ it would mean that your musical is going to flop badly and probably won’t join the ranks of your other successful masterpieces such as… erm… In the UK, the musical was described as ‘going down a bomb’ – a great success in other words. In this situation, your best hope would be that the UK production will make up the loss made by the US one – otherwise it will cost a absolute bomb (in the UK this means a lot of money).

 

Crib. I occasionally listen to rap music, so this word has puzzled me in the past. In the UK, a crib is small bed-like object that is used by newly born babies as place of rest in-between crying, eating, making a mess, more crying, relieving themselves, gurgling cutely when the grandparents come round and screaming loudly when they leave. I should know – I was a little anarchist when I was very small. Mind you, I soon progressed onto a cot – the same sort of idea but bigger and with reinforced bars to stop you getting out – much to my annoyance. Also, in the UK ‘to crib’ means to copy in an exam. In the US, you do not make a distinction between a cot and a crib. Anyway (getting back my original point), when a rapper is talking about taking his baby back to his crib (his small apartment), infant care may not be the most likely outcome. At least, not in the short term… By the way, a cot (for adults) is called a camp bed in the UK.

 

Cricket. Popular myth has it the sound of the English Summer is incomplete without the sound of willow against leather, scones with jam and whipped cream and a cup of tea in a fine bone china cup. This translates into American English as ‘sitting around eating small plain cakes with jelly and cream watching a game where the idea is to stand around for hours on end.’ Ah yes, but this is Tradition you see. Occasionally you might see a chap throw a ball at another chap with a bat, who is wearing padding on his legs, in an attempt to knock over the wicket (the sticks behind the batsman). If this ball bounces in an unexpected manner, this is called a googly. If it is a really erratic googly, the ball may hit the batsman in the goolies (male private parts) at which point the batsman is allowed to throw a wobbler (get upset). This might be a ‘bit of a sticky wicket’ (a problem)… If it is any consolation to our American Chums, a lot of English people don’t understand cricket either and can’t see the point in a three day game which ends in a draw. The English Cricket team is also spectacularly bad at playing the game that England taught to its former colonies, even if the rules were designed to make sure that only the English knew and understood them. As a consequence, most English people consider their country’s cricket team to be a joke and certainly wouldn’t go as far as admitting that they actually supported them. This could be a problem if Norman Tebbit (the Conservative Member of Parliament) gets his way an introduces the ‘Cricket Test’ (i.e. which cricket team you supported) as an immigration test.

 

Fag. A goody but an oldie. Over here a ‘fag’ is a cigarette. So in the song ‘Pack up your troubles in your old kit bag’ the line ‘As long as you have a Lucifer to light your fag’ is not a fundamentalist Christian’s statement that all homosexuals will burn for eternity in hell, but saying that ‘if you always have a match to light your cigarette…’ Also, when at a public (i.e. private – confused you will be) school in the UK, you may have to ‘fag’ for an older boy. This usually involves shining shoes, cleaning up and performing other favours for this older lad. In return for fagging, the older boy looks after your interests and makes sure that you fit into the school and promote the school spirit (bon vivre, not necessarily the alcoholic kind). This may also be a fag (i.e. a tiresome thing).

 

Fancy. In the UK to be sexually attracted to or to desire. Also a tea cake.

 

Football. A classic example of our culture gap. To us Brits football is what you call soccer. To you football is what we call pointless. You probably think the same way about cricket… Our soccer commentators are every bit as annoying as your football ones since they speak in cliches (Over the moon, Ron; Sick as a parrot, Ron; The boy did good, Ron), wear bad 1970s tweed jackets, have unattractive hairstyles (e.g. the ‘Brian Moore’ where a practically bald man grows one side extra long and then combs it over his bald patch – this invariably flutters in his face in strong winds), have no idea what-so-ever about football and tend to be called ‘Ron’. Then again, given the fact that most footballers are capable of great athletic feats on the pitch but are unable to string a sentence together without slipping into cliches (I gave it 110% today, Ron; I’m a bit choked (disappointed) after missing that penalty, Ron; I’m chuffed (glad) that we beat the local Junior School second eleven today, Ron) I suppose they are only making the best of a pretty poor situation. Worst of all the football commentators is the one they call ‘Jimmy Hill’ who is used as a bogeyman by soccer fans to frighten their kids.

 

Going shopping. Going shopping for the first time in the US is worrying experience for Johnny Brit. Firstly, everything is in sold in stores, rather than shops. Secondly, you push your shopping around in a cart rather than a trolley. Thirdly, all of your shopping is put into paper shopping bags rather than the familiar plastic carrier bags by someone called the teller rather than the cashier. Most terrifying of all is the thousands upon thousands of different varieties of junk food, all of which are very bad for you. Two cases in point – blue-berry kool aid and beef jerky. Yuck. Mind you, we do have Pot Noodle over here. These are freeze dried noodles in a spicy sauce that are reconstituted by adding boiling water – disgusting but strangely satisfying after you have been drinking…

 

Jelly & Jam. In the UK, jelly is either the stuff you US-types call jello or a seedless preserve made from fruit, sugar and pectin. To confuse things further, fruit preserves are generically called jam over here too. Hence, if you were in an English restaurant enjoying a piece of bread with peanut butter and fruit preserve on it you would be eating ‘a peanut butter and jam sandwich.’ BTW, I used to enjoy peanut and jelly sandwiches when I was little in the UK sense of the word… Sloppy, but very nice.

 

Lift. In the US the device used to travel between floors in a hotel is called an elevator. In the UK it is called a lift. Also, a word of warning for American hitch-hikers. When hitching it is best to ask ‘for a lift’ and not a ride (which is a sexual favour in the UK).

 

Lorry. A UK truck. A word used in the tongue twister ‘Red Lorry Yellow Lorry’ by parents to torture their kids. Try it. You’ll hate me for it.

 

Momentarily. Imagine you are flying from the UK to the US. Just before you land, the air stewardess announces that ‘we are about to land momentarily’. If she is American, she has just said that we are going to land in the very immediate future. However, if she is British, you may be spending less time in the US than you originally planned. The UK meaning in this context is ‘for a short time’ as opposed to the US ‘in a short time’. Also, when an American stewardess said that the plane would be taking off momentarily on the way home, I had images of the Boeing 747 kangaroo hopping all the way back to Blighty…

 

Pants and Knickers You call pants what we call trousers; pants are the things that go underneath. In the US knickers are knee-length trousers similar to what the Brits call ‘breeches’. In the UK, they are the things that go underneath. Typically British men wear pants under their trousers and women wear knickers, unless of course, you are a Tory (Conservative) MP and then anything goes… Also NORWICH (Norwich is a city in England famed for it’s football team, it’s cathedral and chat show host Alan Partridge) was an acronym used by service personel during WWII for ‘(k)Nickers Off Ready When I Come Home’. To be on the safe side when visiting the doctors it’s best to keep your pants/knickers on…

 

Policemen. UK policemen are unarmed. As a consequence I feel safer over here than I did in the US. Anyway, the following are used to describe policemen: bobbies, peelers, filth, cops, pigs, the old Bill (or the Bill), rozzers, coppers, a plod or perhaps ‘bastards’ if you are feeling lucky. I’m not sure how many of those you guys might use. Imagine you are a tea leaf (cockney rhyming slang for a thief) and you spot a car in good nick (reasonable condition) so you decide to nick (steal) it. Along comes PC (Police Constable) Plod, puts his hand on your shoulder and says ‘You’re nicked mate!’ even though he isn’t your friend and he probably isn’t wielding a knife. This is your cue to say ‘It’s a fair cop! You got me banged to rights and make no mistake. You’ll find the rest of the swag (ill-gotten gains) in the sack!’ if you are stupid or ‘I aint done nuffink, copper!’ if you are aren’t. Since you had ‘been a naughty boy’ you would be taken to court, and you may find yourself confronted by a ‘beak’ (a magistrate), who might send you down for some time ‘at her Majesty’s Pleasure’. You would go to gaol (or jail), or ‘nick’ as it is sometimes confusingly called.

 

Randy. In the US a perfectly reasonable first name. Pity then, the multitude of poor Americans given this unfortunate appellation when they come over to old Blighty. Wherever they go, grimy street urchins snigger, little old ladies try desperately to stifle guffaws and ordinarily quite sensible members of society burst out in laughter. And why? In the UK, saying ‘Hi, I’m Randy!’ is akin to saying to our American cousins ‘Hello friend, I’m feeling horny.’ However, save your pity for poor soul Randy Highman who introduced himself to my supervisor at a conference not so long ago…

 

Rubber. In the UK a rubber is a pencil eraser. In the US, it is a condom. Don’t be shocked if the mild mannered new Englishman in your office asks for a pencil with a rubber on the end. Especially when he says that he enjoys chewing it when he is thinking.

 

School. In the UK if someone said that they were ‘going to school’, it would mean that they are attending an educational establishment that has students between the ages of five and sixteen. In the US, it can also mean the place of higher education that you attend after high school which us Brits call University. Confusing? You bet.

 

Smart. In the US to be smart implies that you are intelligent, clever, witty, a joy to be with, wonderful company etc. It can mean this in the UK as well, but typically in the UK ‘to be smart’ means that you are well dressed. Being smart (UK) is not a prerequisite for being smart(US) though in my experience…

 

Table. Imagine you are in a boardroom. The chairperkin (note dubious PC nomenclature) says ‘I reckon we should table the motion about the McBigcorp account’. If you were American you would think ‘Gee, I guess we can forget about that for a while’ – i.e. the motion has been postponed. If you were English, you would think ‘Jolly good show old bean! I fancied talking about that one!’, i.e. the motion has been brought up for discussion. How do people in trans-atlantic companies cope?

 

Torch. You and your British friend have gone camping. You’ve pitched your tent and have just got into your sleeping bags. Suddenly your friend says ‘Where’s my torch?’ At this point you have images of him producing a US torch (i.e. one with flames) and setting the tent on fire! You feel relieved when he digs deep into his rucksack and produces …a flashlight. Phew!

 

Z. The twenty sixth letter of the alphabet. You call it ‘Zee’; we call it ‘Zed’. A whole generation in England has had to relearn the alphabet after hearing the ‘Alphabet song’ on Sesame Street. Sadder still, the song doesn’t rhyme with the English ‘Zed’. At least the ‘Numbers song’ works (1-2-3-4-5, 6-7-8-9-10, 11-12, do do-do do-do do-do do etc etc…)


The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. II, No. 5, May 1996
http://iteslj.org/


http://iteslj.org/Articles/Barton-UK-USwords.html

Tautologie angielskie

Pleonasms or Tautological Redundancies

Avoid redundancies by not using unnecessary repetitions.

Pleonasms are the opposites (antonyms) of oxymora. A pleonasm consists of two concepts (usually two words) that are redundant. What does “redundant” mean? Well, how about “more than enough; overabundant; excess; and superfluous”? Still having a problem understanding what pleonasm means? Some pleonastic expressions are also known as tautologies. Tautology means, “needless repetition of an idea in a different word, phrase, or sentence; redundancy; pleonasm.” What about pleonasm? It means, “the use of more words than are necessary for the expression of an idea; redundancy.” So it is that we go around in circles: pleonasm means tautology, which means redundancy, which means pleonasm, which means tautology, ad infinitum.

Tautologous expressions are often used in legal documents for clarification of meaning; such as, “will and testament” and “breaking and entering”. This practice may have been a result of expressing English documents with a mixture of Anglo-Saxon and French or Latin terms. When early writers weren’t sure if both designations had the same meaning or that others might not have a clear understanding of the French or Latin, they apparently included terms from both the Anglo-Saxon and the “foreign” words side by side, just to be sure others understood what was meant; this according to David Crystal in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language

  • ABM missile
  • ABS system
  • absolutely essential
  • absolutely necessary
  • a cappella without music
  • AC current
  • ACT test
  • advance forward
  • advance scouting *
  • advance warning
  • affirmative yes
  • affluent rich *
  • aid and abet
  • American chop suey
  • A.M. in the morning
  • AMOCO Oil Co.
  • an anachronism in his own time *
  • and etc.
  • anonymous stranger
  • APL programing language
  • armed assault and holdup *
  • ascend up
  • ATM machine
  • attach together
  • autobiography of my life
  • automatic ATM machine
  • bad evil
  • BASIC code
  • basic fundamentals
  • beautiful vista to look out upon *
  • boat marina *
  • both football teams were deadlocked at halftime *
  • breaking and entering
  • buried and suffocated to death *
  • CAD design
  • cash money
  • cease and desist
  • circulated around
  • classic tradition
  • classify into groups
  • climb up
  • close proximity
  • close scrutiny
  • CNN news network
  • co-equal partners *
  • cold frost
  • cold ice
  • collaborate together
  • combined together
  • commuting back and forth
  • completely filled
  • completely unanimous
  • component parts
  • connect up together
  • conniption fit
  • consecutive extra points in a row *
  • constant nagging
  • continuing on
  • couture fashion
  • current incumbent *
  • dark night
  • DC current
  • dead corpse
  • definite decision
  • descend down
  • diametrically opposed
  • different variation *
  • DMZ zone
  • doctorate degree
  • DOS operating system
  • dry ice
  • each and every
  • each per capita *
  • eliminate altogether
  • empty hole
  • empty space
  • end result
  • entirely eliminating
  • essential necessity
  • exact replica
  • exact same
  • exactly the same
  • existing condition
  • experiment someone was just trying out *
  • extra added features
  • extreme hazard
  • favorable approval *
  • federal deficit
  • fellow colleague
  • final end
  • final showdown *
  • first conceived *
  • following below
  • forced compulsion
  • foreign imports
  • former graduate (of an educational institution) *
  • former veteran *
  • frank candor *
  • free gift
  • free gratis
  • freezing cold
  • full satisfaction
  • frozen ice
  • frozen tundra
  • general consensus of opinion
  • give and bequeath
  • GMT time
  • good benefit
  • good luck
  • good success *
  • good success *
  • government deficit
  • grand total
  • grateful thanks
  • growing greater
  • half a dozen of one and six of another
  • handwritten manuscript
  • hard rock (as in Hard Rock Cafe?)
  • have and hold
  • hear with one’s own ears
  • HIV virus
  • hot fire
  • hot water heater
  • imminent at any moment *
  • individual person
  • indulgent patience
  • inquisitive busybody
  • intentional planning
  • invited guests
  • “…it was never our intent to intentionally exclude…” (heard on the radio)
  • irregardless *
  • ISDN network
  • join together
  • joint collaboration
  • joint cooperation
  • killed dead
  • knowledgeable experts
  • last will and testament
  • LCD display
  • LED diode
  • lesbian women or lesbian woman
  • literate-English teachers
  • literate readers
  • little animalcules
  • little baby
  • live witness
  • living legend in his own time *
  • long-chronic illness
  • long litany
  • major breakthrough
  • malignant cancer
  • manually by hand
  • many frequent
  • marital spouse
  • may possibly
  • meandering back and forth and all around *
  • mental thought
  • merge together
  • mesa table
  • missing gaps *
  • mutual cooperation
  • microdot
  • modern colleges of today
  • Mount Fujiyama (Mount Mountain)
  • more easier
  • more than unique–it’s practically one of a kind *
  • mutual confidence *
  • NATO organization
  • near proximity
  • necessary essentials
  • negative misfortune
  • negative no
  • never, ever
  • new discovery *
  • new innovations *
  • new neophyte
  • new recruit
  • nocturnal-night vampires
  • nomenclature terms
  • nonreading illiterates
  • normal, everyday
  • nostalgia for the past *
  • not sufficient enough *
  • null and void
  • obsolete thing of the past *
  • old adage
  • old customs
  • old senior citizens
  • only unique (person, place, or thing)
  • oral conversation *
  • original founder
  • original source
  • over again
  • overdone this a little too much *
  • overused cliche
  • pair of twins *
  • past experience
  • past history
  • past tradition *
  • PC Computer
  • perfectly legitimate
  • personal friend
  • personal friendship
  • personal individual
  • PIN number (Private Identification Number number)
  • pizza pie
  • plane flying aloft in the air above *
  • play actor
  • please RSVP
  • P.M. in the evening
  • poisonous venoms
  • polar opposites
  • positive yes
  • postponed until later
  • potentially capable *
  • pre planning
  • present incumbent
  • previously listed above
  • pruned out
  • quite unique
  • rags and tatters
  • real actual
  • recently new
  • receded back *
  • re-continuation *
  • redundancies, tautologies, and pleonasms
  • redundant redundancies
  • redundant repetitions
  • refer back
  • regular routine
  • religious holiday
  • repeat again
  • repeated redundancies
  • repetitious redundancies
  • resulting effects
  • retreating back
  • return back
  • revert back
  • rice paddy
  • Rio Grande River (Big River River)
  • root cause
  • round circle
  • ruling junta *
  • safe haven (donated by Frances in Australia)
  • safe sanctuary *
  • safe sanctuary *
  • Sahara desert
  • SCSI Interface
  • see with one’s own eyes
  • seedling plant
  • serious danger
  • sharp point
  • shape and form
  • sin taxes
  • sink down
  • situation is calm and quiet (heard on CNN regarding Congo)
  • small speck
  • specific examples
  • stellar astronomers
  • string together
  • staged scenario
  • successful achievement
  • sudden impulse
  • suffered poorly *
  • surrounded on all sides *
  • sum total
  • technical jargon
  • temporary reprieve
  • the hoi polloi (hoi means “the”)
  • The La Brea Tar Pits (The The Tar Tar Pits)
  • The Los Altos Hills (The The Hills Hills)
  • tiny speck
  • top priority
  • total destruction
  • totally demolished
  • totally unnecessary
  • true facts
  • tuna fish
  • 12 o’clock midnight (or 12 midnight)
  • 12 o’clock noon (or 12 noon)
  • two-man tandem *
  • two-person tandem *
  • ultimate goal
  • undergraduate student
  • unexpected emergency
  • unexpected surprise
  • unhealthy sickness
  • university college students
  • unmarried bachelor
  • unmarried old maid
  • unnecessary redundancies *
  • unsolved mystery
  • usual custom
  • useless and unnecessary
  • vacillating back and forth *
  • VIN number (Vehicle Identification Number number)
  • visible with your own eyes *
  • wall mural
  • watching and observing
  • wet water
  • widow woman
  • widow of the late (Whoever) *
  • widower man
  • will and testament
  • with au jus
  • wordy and verbose
  • world-wide-pandemic disease (heard on CNN from “health expert”)
  • youthful teenagers
* The pleonasms followed by an asterisk (*) came from an essay, “The Affluent Rich” by Nat Boynton in his book, Media Rare. My special thanks to Mr. Jerry Gordon for contributing a copy of the essay so I could go through it and pick out the “UR’s” (Unnecessary Redundancies) or pleonasms.

 

Now, as with the oxymora, we include pleonasms in sentences; some of them are from the mouths of famous celebrities.

 

  • It’s deja vu all over again. -attributed to Yogi Berra
  • “Smoking can kill you, and if you’ve been killed, you’ve lost a very important part of your life.” -attributed to Brooke Shields
  • Lead-lined coffins called a health risk.
  • Census says rich have most of the money. (news item)
  • Cliches are a dime a dozen–avoid them like the plague.
  • Cure suggestibility with hypnosis.
  • I’ve told you a million times, “Don’t exaggerate!”
  • Is that a mirage or am I seeing things?
  • It’s bad luck to be superstitious.
  • I used to be an agnostic, but now I’m not so sure.
  • Sometimes you can observe a lot just by watching. -attributed to Yogi Berra
  • Half the lies our opponents tell about us are not true.
  • Football is an incredible game. Sometimes it’s so incredible, it’s unbelievable. -Tom Landry
  • When large numbers of men are unable to find work, unemployment results. -Calvin Coolidge
  • Anyone who goes to a psychiatrist ought to have his head examined. -Samuel Goldwyn
  • I never make predictions, especially about the future. -Attributed to Samuel Goldwyn
  • “In the city today, the temperature rose to 105 degrees. This sudden rise of temperature was responsible for the intolerable heat.”
  • “Trapped, like a trap in a trap.” -Dorothy Parker
  • I used to be indecisive, now I’m not sure.
  • He lived his life to the end.
  • Some people are superficial but that’s just on the surface.
  • The world is apathetic but I don’t care.
  • Always avoid alliteration.
  • Treachery will often bring loyalty into question.
  • Perspective is in the eye of the beholder.
  • “If we do not succeed, we run the risk of failure.” -attributed to former Vice-President Dan Quayle
  • “Seen somewhere in the U.S. — “Fish and chips with French fries.”

 

Nazwy gromad zwierząt

Flocks of Animals

czyli nazwy gromad w jakie łączą się zwierzęta

 1. Army
Frogs
 2. Brood/Clutch
Chickens/Chicks
 3. Bed
Oysters
 4. Bevy
Quail/Women
 5. Brace
Ducks
 6. Convocation
Eagles
 7. Chattering
Starling/Choughs
 8. Clamour
Rooks
 9. Colony
Ants/Gulls/Men
10. Clowder
Cats
11. Covey/Pack
Grouse/Patridges
12. Crash
Rhinoceroses
13. Cry
Hounds
14. Cast
Hawks
15. Charm
Gold fish
16. Clutch
Chicks
17. Dray
Squirrels
18. Drove
Cattle
19. Exaltation
Larks
20. Flock
Sheep
21. Gam
Whales
22. Gaggle
Geese
23. Herd
Elephants
24. Hive
Bees
25. Horde
Gnats
26. Knot       
Toads
25. Horde
Gnats
26. Knot
Toads
27. Kindle
Kittens
28. Leap
Leopards
29. Litter
Puppies
30. Murder
Crows
31. Mustering
Storks
32. Nest
Vipers
33. Pod
Seals
34. Pride/Flocks/Troop
Lions
35. Pair
Horses
36. Span
Mules/Cows
37. Swarm
Bees
38. School
Fish/Whales
39. String
Racehorses
40. Sleuth
Bears
41. Spring
Teals
42. Skulk/Earth
Foxes
43. Sounder
Wild swines
44. Trip
Birds/animals
45. Troop
Kangaroos/Monkeys
46. Tribe
Goats
47. Unkindness
Ravens
48. Watch
Nightingales
49. Yoke
Oxen
50. Pack
Wolves

Homografy

Homografy to słowa, które mają identyczną pisownię ale różne znaczenia.
Tu znajdziecie ich pełną listę

Homographs are words that have identical spellings but different pronunciations and different meanings. Some dictionaries call these types of words heteronyms.
The list was taking the following format:
word Class (n)
pronunciation #1 first definition
pronunciation #2 second definition
All homographs are not created equal! Your definition of what is acceptable might not match mine. The list were classified using the following class definitions:
A – All of the following “detractions” are absent.
B – Basic meanings of the words are related.
C – Capitalization differences. One or more of the words is a proper noun (and can be found in a standard dictionary).
D – Different spellings also exist (US vs. UK, hyphenation, etc.)
E – Equal pronunciations also exist (US vs. UK, regional, etc.)
F – Foreign letters (the word is part of the English language, but one or more of the letters has a diacritical over one or more letters).
P – Place name or Person’s name (not found in a dictionary).
S – Slang (not found in a dictionary.)
ablative Class (A)
AB-la-tiv a grammatical case
a-BLAIT-iv tends to ablate (vaporize)
absent Class (B)
AB-sent missing
ab-SENT to keep oneself away
abstract Class (B,E)
AB-strakt a summary
ab-STRAKT or AB-strakt not like an object
abuse Class (B)
a-BYOOZ ~ a drug
a-BYOOS drug ~
accent Class (B,E)
AK-sent the ~ is on bright colors
ak-SENT or AK-sent ~ the positive
acuminate Class (B)
a-KYOO-mi-nut pointed
a-KYOO-mi-nate to make pointed
addict Class (B)
a-DIKT to cause to become dependent
AD-ikt one who is dependent
address Class (B,E)
AD-res or a-DRES location
a-DRES to write the location
adduct Class (A)
AD-ukt a chemical addition product
a-DUKT to bring together similar parts
adept Class (B)
AD-ept a highly skilled person
a-DEPT highly skilled
adulterate Class (B)
a-DUL-tu-rate to make impure
a-DUL-tu-rut has engaged in adultery
advert Class (A)
AD-vert advertisement (British)
ad-VERT to refer to casually
advocate Class (B,E)
AD-vu-kut or AD-vu-kate a lawyer
AD-vu-kate to argue in favor of
aerial Class (B,E)
AR-ee-al or ER-ee-al pertaining to aircraft
ER-ee-al or AR-ee-al antenna
affect Class (B,E)
a-FEKT to influence
AF-ekt the subjective aspect of an emotion
affiliate Class (B,E)
a-FIL-ee-ate to accept as an associate
a-FIL-ee-ut or a-FIL-ee-ate an associate
affix Class (B)
a-FIKS to attach to
AF-iks an appendage
agape Class (A)
a-GAYP wide open
OG-e-pay form of love
aged Class (B,E)
AY-jed or AYJD of an advanced age
AYJD a man ~ 40 years
agglomerate Class (B)
a-GLOM-u-rate to gather into a ball
a-GLOM-u-rut gathered into a ball
agglutinate Class (B)
a-GLOOT-i-nate to cause to clump together
a-GLOOT-i-nut agglutinative
aggregate Class (B)
AG-ri-gate to gather into a whole
AG-ri-gut the whole
agora Class (A)
AG-or-uh a gathering place
a-gor-AH Israeli money
aliment Class (B)
AL-i-ment food
AL-i-MENT to give food to
alloy Class (B,E)
AL-oy or uh-LOY combined metals
uh-LOY or AL-oy to mix so as to form an alloy
ally Class (B,E)
ah-LIE or AL-eye to join with others
AL-eye or ah-LIE one who is allied
alternate Class (B)
ALL-tur-nate to switch back and forth
ALL-tur-nut ~ plan
ana Class (E)
AN-uh an equal quantity of each
AY-nuh or AN-uh a collection of anecdotes
analyses Class (B,D)
a-NAL-a-seez plural of noun analysis
AN-al-ize-ez plural of verb analyse (UK spelling)
animate Class (B)
AN-i-mate to give life to
AN-i-mut living
annex Class (B,E)
a-NEKS or AN-eks to take for oneself
AN-eks an addition to a building
antedate Class (B,E)
ANT-i-date an assigned date earlier than actual
ant-i-DATE or ANT-i-date to assign an earlier date
appropriate Class (A)
a-PRO-pree-ate take possession of
a-PRO-pree-ut suitable
approximate Class (B)
a-PROKS-i-mate to be nearly the same as
a-PROKS-i-mut nearly correct
are Class (E)
EHR or AHR metric unit of area
AHR where ~ you?
ares Class (C)
EHRZ plural metric unit of area
EHR-eez Greek god of war
arithmetic Class (B)
a-RITH-mu-tik reading, writing, and ~
ar-ith-MET-ik ~ scale
arses Class (A)
AR-suz plural of arse
AR-seez plural of arsis
articulate Class (B)
ar-TIK-u-late to speak clearly
ar-TIK-u-lut one who speaks clearly
as Class (A)
AZ like
ASS Roman coin
AYZ plural of a
aspirate Class (B)
AS-pi-rate inhale
AS-pi-rut material removed by aspiration
asses Class (E)
ASS-uz plural of ass
ASS-eez or ASS-uz plural of as (the coin)
associate Class (B,E)
as-O-she-ate join with
as-O-she-ut or as-O-she-ate whom one is joined with
ate Class (A)
AIT past of eat
OT-tee reckless ambition
attaches Class (F)
uh-TACH-ez plural of attach
at-a-SHAYZ plural of attach?
attenuate Class (B)
u-TEN-yu-wate to make thin or slender
u-TEN-yu-wut thin or slender
attribute Class (A)
a-TRIB-ewt regard as a cause
AT-ri-bewt characteristic feature
august Class (C,E)
AW-gust month
aw-GUST or AW-gust admirable
axes Class (A)
AK-sez plural of ax
AK-seez plural of axis
ay Class (D)
AY yes (also aye)
EYE ~ me; expressing regret
bases Class (A)
BAY-sez plural of base
BAY-seez plural of basis
bass Class (A)
BASS fish
BAYS deep voice
baton Class (P)
bu-TAWN passed in a relay race
BAT-un ~ Rouge, Louisiana
begin Class (P)
bee-GIN start
BAY-gun Israeli Prime Minister
Berlin Class (P)
bur-LIN city in Germany
BUR-lun city in New Hampshire
bis Class (S)
BIS again
BUYZ bisexuals (slang)
blessed Class (B,E)
BLES-ed or BLEST revered
BLEST he ~ her
boule Class (A)
BOO-lee ancient Greek legislative council
BOOL pear-shaped mass with a single crystal
bow Class (A)
BAHW ~ and stern
BOE ~ and arrow
bowed Class (B)
BAHWD she ~ her head
BOAD the branch was ~
buffet Class (A)
BUF-et hit repeatedly
bu-FAY type of furniture
bustier Class (A)
BUS-tee-ur more busty
BOOS-tee-ay feminine attire
certificate Class (B)
sur-TIF-i-kut document providing authentication
sur-TIF-u-kate testify
chaps Class (A)
CHAPS fellows
SHAPS leather leggings
chassis Class (B)
CHASS-ee vehicle undercarriage
CHASS-eez vehicle undercarriages
close Class (A)
KLOS nearby
KLOZ ~ the door
coagulate Class (B,E)
ko-AG-u-late curdle
ko-AG-u-lut or ko-AG-u-late that which has coagulated
coax Class (S)
KOKES persuade
KOE-ax slang for coaxial cable
colon Class (B,E,F)
KOE-lun “:”
kaw-LOAN or ku-LOAN colonial farmer
ku-LOAN Costa Rican monetary unit
combat Class (B,E)
kum-BAT or KOM-bat fight against
KOM-bat armed battle
combine Class (B)
KOM-byn association of people
kum-BYN to unite
commune Class (E)
kuh-MYEWN ~ with nature
KOM-yewn or kuh-MYEWN small collective unit, typically rural
compact Class (B,E)
kum-PAKT or KOM-pakt ~ the trash
KOM-pakt ~ car
complex Class (B,E)
kom-PLEX or KOM-plex intricate
KOM-plex apartment ~
compound Class (B,E)
kum-POWND or KOM-pownd ~ our problems
KOM-pownd ~ fracture
compress Class (B)
kum-PRES make smaller
KOM-pres bandage
concert Class (B)
KON-sert musical performance
kun-SERT to plan by mutual agreement
concord Class (P)
KON-kord agreement
KONG-kurd city in New Hampshire
conduct Class (B)
kun-DUKT to guide
KON-dukt behavior
confect Class (B)
kun-FEKT to put together
KON-fekt that which is confected
confines Class (B)
kun-FYNZ limits
KON-fynz the area where something is limited to
conflict Class (B)
KON-flikt a battle
kun-FLIKT their stories ~
conglomerate Class (B)
kun-GLOM-u-rut composed of many items
kun-GLOM-e-rate to gather into a whole
conjugate Class (B,E)
KON-ji-gut or KON-ju-gate joined together
KON-ju-gate to join together
conscript Class (B)
KON-skript one forced to enroll
kun-SKRIPT to force someone to enroll
conserve Class (B)
kun-SURV to preserve with sugar
KON-surv a candied fruit
console Class (A)
kun-SOLE provide solace
KON-sole panel containing controls
consort Class (B,E)
KON-sort lover
kun-SORT or KON-sort to associate with
construct Class (B)
kun-STRUKT build
KON-strukt something built
consummate Class (B)
KON-soo-mut extremely skilled
KON-soo-mate ~ a marriage
contact Class (B,E)
KON-takt electrical connection
kun-TAKT or KON-takt to communicate with
content Class (A)
KON-tent what is contained
kun-TENT satisfied
contest Class (B)
KON-test competition
kun-TEST to dispute
contract Class (B)
KON-trakt sign the ~
kun-TRAKT ~ a disease
contrary Class (B,E)
KON-trer-y something that is opposite
kun-TRER-y or KON-trer-y unruly
contrast Class (B,E)
KON-trast a difference
kun-TRAST or KON-trast to show differences
converse Class (A)
KON-vurs logic term
kun-VURS to talk
convert Class (B)
kun-VURT to change
KON-vurt one who has been changed
convict Class (B)
kun-VIKT to find guilty
KON-vikt one who has been found guilty
coop Class (D)
KOOP chicken’s home
KOE-op short for cooperative (hyphenated)
coordinate Class (B,E)
koe-OR-di-nate to put in the same order or rank
koe-OR-di-nut or koe-OR-di-nate one that is in the same order or rank
corps Class (B)
KOR a member of the press ~
KORZ compare the ~ of the two ballet companies
crooked Class (B)
KROOK-ed ~ as a dog’s hind leg
KROOKD ~ my neck to see
cutin Class (D)
KYOO-tin The ~ makes the leaf feel waxy.
KUT-in Flow the text around the ~. (hyphenated)
decameter Class (D)
de-KAM-e-tur poetic line with 10 feet
DEK-a-mee-tur 10 meters (or “dekameter”)
defect Class (E)
DEE-fekt or di-FEKT flaw
di-FEKT to desert a cause
defense Class (B,D,E)
di-FENS speak out in ~ of justice (or “defence”)
DEE-fens or di-FENS offense and ~
defile Class (E)
di-FILE to sully or make dirty
DEE-file or di-FILE a narrow passage or gorge
degenerate Class (B)
dee-JEN-u-rate to get worse
dee-JEN-u-rut a pervert
delegate Class (B,E)
DEL-i-gate ~ your authority
DEL-i-gut or DEL-i-gate a person acting for another
deliberate Class (B)
dee-LIB-u-rut intentional
dee-LIB-u-rate to think carefully
desert Class (A)
DEZ-urt dry place
di-ZURT abandon
desiccate Class (B)
DES-i-kate to dry
DES-i-kut the product of desiccation
desolate Class (B)
DES-u-lut barren
DES-u-late to make barren
diagnoses Class (B)
DI-ag-no-sez he ~ the problems
di-ag-NO-sees he gives several ~
digest Class (A)
DIE-jest reader’s ~
die-JEST ~ your food
discharge Class (B,E)
dis-CHARJ to release
DIS-charj that which is released
divers Class (A)
DIE-vurz plural of diver
die-VURS various
do Class (A)
DUE perform
DOE 1st note of diatonic scale
does Class (A)
DUZ ~ this look good?
DOES plural of doe
dogged Class (B)
DOG-id tenacious
DOGD to track or trail persistently
dove Class (A)
DOVE dived
DUV bird
drawer Class (A)
DRAW-ur one who draws
DRAWR container for items
duplicate Class (B)
DUP-li-kut a copy
DUP-li-kate to make a copy
egress Class (B,E)
EE-gres an exit
ee-GRES to exit
ejaculate Class (B)
ee-JAK-u-late eject semen in orgasm
ee-JAK-u-lut ejected semen
elaborate Class (B)
i-LAB-u-rut rich in detail
i-LAB-u-rate give further detail on
ellipses Class (A)
i-LIP-sus plural of ellipse
i-LIP-seez plural of ellipsis
entrance Class (A)
EN-truns door
in-TRANS delight
escort Class (B)
ES-kort my ~ took me to the dance
es-KORT please ~ me to the dance
essay Class (B,E)
ES-ay piece of writing
e-SAY or ES-ay to put to a test
estimate Class (B)
ES-ti-mut a rough calculation
ES-tu-mate to make a rough calculation
ewe Class (C)
YOO female sheep
AY-way African language
excise Class (A)
EK-size type of tax
ik-SIZE to cut out
excuse Class (B)
ex-KYEWZ please ~ me for a minute
ex-KYEWS I need to think of an ~
exploit Class (E)
EK-sploit feat
ik-SPLOIT or EX-sploit take advantage of
expose Class (F)
ik-SPOZE reveal
ek-spoh-ZAY an exposure of something discreditable
extract Class (B)
EK-strakt derived from
il-STRAKT remove
ferment Class (B,E)
FUR-ment or fur-MENT yeast is a ~
fur-MENT ~ potatoes to make vodka
fiasco Class (E)
fee-AS-koh or fee-OS-koh complete failure
fee-OS-koh straw covered bottle
fillet Class (B,D,E)
fi-LAY piece of meat (also filet)
FIL-ut or fi-LAY to make into fillets
fine Class (A)
FINE one ~ day
FEE-nay musical term
forte Class (A)
FOERT strongest part of a blade
FOR-tay loud
frequent Class (B,E)
FREE-kwunt often occurring
free-KWENT or FREE-kwunt to visit repeatedly
gill Class (A)
GIL fish organ
JIL unit of volume
graduate Class (B)
GRAJ-u-wate successfully finish a degree
GRAJ-u-ut one who has graduated
grave Class (B)
GRAVE where you bury someone
GRAWV-ay slowly and solemnly (music direction)
hades Class (A)
HAID-eez hell (sometimes capitalized)
HAIDZ angles made by rock faults or veins
have Class (B,E)
HAV I ~ some already
HAFF or HAV do I ~ to?
he Class (A)
HEE pronoun
HAY 5th letter of Hebrew alphabet
herb Class (E,P)
HURB man’s name
URB or HURB flavorful plant
hinder Class (A)
HIN-dur hamper
HINE-dur Devil take the ~ most
house Class (B)
HOWSE dwelling
HOWZ give shelter to
import Class (B,E)
im-PORT or IM-port bring into a country
IM-port that which is brought in
impress Class (B)
im-PRES to mark with pressure
IM-pres the mark produce by impressing
incense Class (A)
in-SENS infuriate
IN-sens perfume for burning
incline Class (B)
in-KLINE to lean towards
IN-kline a slope
increase Class (B,E)
in-KREES ~ my salary!
IN-krees or in-KREES I want a salary ~!
initiate Class (B)
in-ISH-ee-ate to begin something
in-ISH-ee-ut one who has been initiated
insert Class (B)
in-SURT to put into
IN-surt something inserted
insult Class (B)
IN-sult a disrespectful remark
in-SULT to make a disrespectful remark
integral Class (B)
in-TEG-rul whole
INT-i-grul expressible in terms of integers
intercept Class (B)
in-tur-SEPT to halt something
INT-ur-sept that which has been intercepted
intermediate Class (B)
in-tur-MEE-dee-ut between
in-tur-MEE-dee-ate intervene
intern Class (E)
IN-turn hospital ~
in-TURN or IN-turn ~ the captives
intimate Class (A)
INT-u-mut personal or private
INT-u-mate to suggest
invalid Class (A)
IN-vu-lud incapacitated
in-VAL-ud wrong
invite Class (B)
in-VITE ask someone to attend
IN-vite an invitation
jagged Class (B)
JAGD moved in jerks
JAG-ud having a sharp, uneven edge
job Class (C)
JOB on the ~
JOBE the book of ~
jubilate Class (B,C)
JOO-bu-late rejoice
yoo-bu-LAW-tay joyous song
junker Class (C)
JUNG-kur old car
YOONG-kur member of the Prussian aristocracy
lame Class (F)
law-MAY gold ~ jacket
LAIM ~ duck
lamed Class (A)
LAIMD made disabled
LAWM-ed 12th letter of the Hebrew alphabet
laminate Class (B,E)
LAM-u-nate to combine layers of material
LAM-u-nut or LAM-u-nate composed of layers
lather Class (A)
LATHE-ur foam
LAYTH-ur one who works a lathe
LATH-ur one who uses laths
lead Class (A)
LED heavy metal
LEED show the way
learned Class (B)
LURND past tense of learn
LUR-nud knowledgeable
legate Class (A)
LEG-ut official emissary
li-GATE bequeath
legged Class (B,E)
LEG-ud four ~
LEGD he ~ his way to the top
legitimate Class (B)
li-JIT-u-mut legal or authorized
li-JIT-u-mate to make legitimate
lima Class (P)
LIME-uh type of bean
LEEM-uh city in Peru
live Class (B)
LIVE ~ audience
LIV ~ in harmony
lower Class (A)
LOWE-ur to move down
LOUW-ur frown
luger Class (A)
LEW-gur pistol
LEWZH-ur one who rides a luge
lunger Class (A)
LUNJ-ur one that lunges
LUNG-ur one that is tubercular
lupine Class (A)
LOO-pine wolfish
LOO-pin kind of flower
manes Class (C)
MAINZ plural of mane
MON-ase deified spirits of Roman dead
mare Class (A)
MAIR female horse
MAH-ray dark area on the moon
mate Class (F)
MAIT friend
MAW-tay South American beverage (mat?
micrometer Class (A)
my-KROM-u-tur measuring device
MY-krow-mee-tur a millionth of a meter
minute Class (A)
MIN-ut 60 seconds
my-NEWT wee
misconduct Class (B)
mis-KON-dukt your ~ is unacceptable
mis-kun-DUKT don’t ~ yourself while I’m gone
mobile Class (B,E)
MOWE-beel wind-blown sculpture
MOWE-bul or MOWE-beel movable
moderate Class (B)
MOD-u-rut not extreme
MOD-u-rate to make less extreme
mole Class (A)
MOAL underground denizen
MOE-lay type of Mexican food
moped Class (A)
MOWE-ped motorized bike
MOWEPT was gloomy
mouse Class (B)
MOWS rodent
MOWZ to hunt them
mouth Class (B)
MOWTHE to move one’s mouth
MOWTH what you speak with
mow Class (B)
MAUW hay ~
MOWE ~ the lawn
multiply Class (B)
MUL-tu-ply math operation
MUL-tu-plee it was ~ defined
nice Class (P)
NISE pleasant
NEES city in France
none Class (A)
NUN not any
NOAN 5th canonical hour
number Class (A)
NUM-bur we’re ~ one!
NUM-ur more numb
nun Class (A)
NUN woman in religious order
NUON 14th letter of Hebrew alphabet
object Class (A)
ub-JEKT disapprove
OB-jekt a material thing
obligate Class (B,E)
OB-lu-gate to bind legally or morally
OB-li-gut or OB-lu-gate bound to a restricted lifestyle
offense Class (B,E)
u-FENS or OFF-ens don’t take ~
OFF-ens the attacking team
os Class (A)
OS bone
OSE mouth or orifice
overage Class (A)
OH-vur-AIJ too old
OHV-rij excess
overlook Class (B)
OH-vur-look elevated spot with a view
oh-vur-LOOK to ignore
pan Class (A)
PAN metal container
PON a leaf of the betel vine
pasty Class (A)
PAY-stee paste-like
PASS-tee a meat pie
pate Class (B,F)
PAIT head
POT paste
paw-TAY meat spread
peaked Class (E)
PEEKD or PEEK-ed sharply pointed
PEEK-ed unhealthy looking
pedal Class (B,E)
PED-il place to put your foot
PEED-il or PED-il relating to the foot
peer Class (A)
PEER one’s equal
PEE-ur one who pees
perfect Class (B)
PUR-fekt the best possible
pur-FEKT to make better
periodic Class (A)
pir-ee-OK-ik regularly recurring
pur-eye-od-ik ~ acids, HIO4 for example
permit Class (B)
pur-MIT to allow
PUR-mit a pass
placer Class (A)
PLAY-sur one of the winners in a competition
PLAS-ur mineral deposit
plies Class (F)
PLYZ plural of ply
plee-AZE plural of pli?
polish Class (C)
POE-lish from Poland
POL-ish rub
prayer Class (B)
PRAY-ur one who prays
PRER say a ~
precipitate Class (B)
pri-SIP-u-tate to rain or snow
pri-SIP-ut-ut a solid separated from a solution
predicate Class (B)
PRED-i-kut part of a sentence
PRED-i-kate to assert or declare
premise Class (B,E)
PREM-us based on the ~ that all men are created equal
pri-MIZE or PREM-us I ~ that all men…
present Class (B)
pri-ZENT give
PREZ-ent gift
primer Class (E)
PRIM-ur or PRY-mur intro book for teaching
PRY-mur used for priming
proceeds Class (A)
pro-SEEDZ continues
PRO-seedz income
produce Class (B)
pru-DOOS create
PROD-oos fruits and veggies
progress Class (B)
PROG-rus movement towards a goal
pru-GRES to advance
project Class (A)
PRAW-ject undertaking
pru-JEKT hurl
prospect Class (B,E)
prus-PEKT or PROS-pekt explore
PROS-pekt a likely candidate
protest Class (B)
PRO-test display of disapproval
pru-TEST to object to
pussy Class (A)
POOS-ee ~ cat
PUS-ee full of pus
putting Class (A)
PUTT-ing golfing
POOT-ing placing
ragged Class (A)
RAGD tormented
RAG-ud tattered
rainier Class (P)
RAIN-ee-ur more rainy
ruh-NIR Mount ~ in Washington
raven Class (A)
RAY-vun black bird
RAV-un to devour greedily
re Class (E)
REE or RAY with regard to
RAY 2nd note of diatonic scale
mis/proof/read Class (B)
REED I will ~ that book
RED I already ~ that book
reading Class (P)
REED-ing ~ and writing
RED-ing city in Pennsylvania
real Class (A)
REEL actual
ray-OL former Spanish money
rebel Class (B)
ri-BEL to resist
REB-ul one who rebels
rebound Class (B)
REE-bound a sharp ~ in stock prices
REE-BOUND to recover from a setback
recall Class (B)
REE-kawl Chrysler issued a ~ of their mini-vans
ree-KAWL I can’t ~ just when
recap Class (B)
REE-kap a recapped tire
ree-KAP to put new tread on a tire
recess Class (B,E)
REE-ses or ri-SES a nook
ri-SES to put something into a recess
recoil Class (B,E)
ri-KOIL to flinch or wince
REE-koil or ri-KOIL the kickback of a gun
recollect Class (A)
rek-a-LEKT remember
REE-kol-ekt to collect again
record Class (B)
REK-urd ~ player
ri-KORD ~ the music
recreate/ion Class (A)
REK-ree-ate relax
REE-kree-ATE create again
redo Class (B,E)
REE-DUE do again
REE-due or REE-DUE redecorate
redress Class (B,E)
ri-DRES compensate
REE-dress or ri-DRES compensation
REE-DRES dress again
refill Class (B,E)
REE-fill a replenishment
ree-FILL or REE-fill fill again
refit Class (B,E)
ree-FIT to fit out or resupply
REE-fit or ree-FIT the act of refitting
reflex Class (A)
REE-fleks an automatic action
REE-FLEKS flex again
reform Class (A)
ri-FORM change for the better
REE-FORM form again
refund Class (B,E)
ri-FUND or REE-fund to return money
REE-fund the returned money
refuse Class (A)
ri-FUSE do not accept
REF-yoos garbage
regress Class (B)
ri-GRES to go back
REE-gres the act of reasoning backwards
rehash Class (B)
REE-hash I don’t want to sit through another ~ of the situation
ree-HASH Let’s ~ the problem together
reject Class (B)
REE-jekt one that has been rejected
ree-JEKT to refuse to accept
relapse Class (B,E)
ri-LAPS he may ~ back to his former troubles
REE-laps or ri-LAPS he had a ~ earlier this year
relay Class (A)
REE-lay electrical switch
ri-LAY pass on
release Class (A)
ree-LEES let go
REE-LEES lease again
remake Class (B)
REE-make have you seen the ~ of Beau Geste?
REE-MAKE I have to ~ the bed
repair Class (A)
ree-PAIR fix
REE-PAIR pair again
repent Class (A)
ri-PENT regret
REE-punt creeping
replay Class (B,E)
REE-play a repetition
ree-PLAY or REE-play play again
report Class (A)
ree-PORT give me a ~ on our progress
REE-PORT we’re going to have to ~ the software
represent Class (A)
rep-ri-ZENT stand for
REE-pri-ZENT present again
repress Class (A)
ri-PRES repress a bad memory
REE-PRES re-press a record
reprint Class (B)
REE-print can I get a ~ of that?
REE-PRINT we’ll have to ~ the whole thing again
reproof Class (A)
ri-PROOF I’ve never heard a word of ~ regarding her
REE-PROOF please ~ the article
rerun Class (B,E)
REE-run or REE-RUN a second showing
REE-RUN run again
research Class (A)
ri-SURCH investigate
REE-SURCH search again
reseda Class (A)
ri-SED-u type of flower
RAY-zu-da grayish green color
resent Class (A)
ree-ZENT be indignant
REE-SENT sent again
reserve Class (A)
ri-ZURV hold back
REE-SURV serve again
reside Class (A)
ree-ZIDE I ~ in California
REE-SIDE I want to ~ my garage
resign Class (A)
ri-ZINE quit
REE-SIGN sign again
resolve Class (A)
ri-ZOLV settle dispute
REE-SOLV solve again
resort Class (A)
ri-ZORT vacation spot
REE-SORT sort again
resound Class (A)
ree-ZOUND the walls ~ with joyous laughter
REE-SOUND ~ him out on that proposal
restore Class (A)
ri-STOR ~ your confidence
REE-STOR please ~ the tapes in the vault
resume Class (F)
ri-ZOOM continue
REZ-oo-may work summary
retake Class (B)
ree-TAKE we’ll ~ the city
REE-take we’ll need to do a ~ tomorrow
retard Class (A)
REE-tard who’s the ~ that left the door open?
ri-TARD ~ the timing on your car
return Class (A)
ri-TURN I will ~ the sweater
REE-TURN redo a project on a lathe
review Class (B)
ri-VEW look over
REE-VEW view something again
rewind Class (B)
ree-WINED don’t forget to ~ your tapes
REE-wined hit the ~ button
rodeo Class (P)
RODE-ee-oh western cowboy show
roe-DAY-oh ~ Drive
rose Class (F)
ROZE type of flower
roze-AY type of wine
rout Class (A)
ROUT disastrous defeat
ROTE a cattle bellow
router Class (E)
ROUT-ur woodworking tool
ROOT-ur or ROUT-ur a horse trained for distance races
row Class (A)
RAU a fight
ROE ~,~,~ your boat
sake Class (D)
SAKE for your own ~
SOK-ee Japanese drink (also saki)
salve Class (A)
SAV ointment
SALV salvage
secrete/d/ive Class (E)
SEE-krut or si-KREET to conceal in a hiding place
si-KREET to form and give off
seer Class (E)
SEE-ur or SIR one that sees
SIR unit of weight
segment Class (B)
SEG-munt a portion
seg-MENT to separate into segments
separate Class (B)
SEP-u-rate ~ those two
SEP-u-rut put them in ~ places
sewer Class (A)
SUE-ur storm ~
SOE-ur one who sews
shin Class (E)
SHIN part of leg
SHEEN or SHIN 22nd letter in Hebrew alphabet
shower Class (A)
SHAU-ur bathe
SHOW-ur one who shows
sin Class (E)
SIN moral offense
SEEN or SIN 21st letter in Hebrew alphabet
singer Class (A)
SING-ur one who sings
SINJ-ur one who singes
skied Class (D)
SKEED past tense of ski
SKYD hung a painting up high
slaver Class (E)
SLAY-vur one who sells slaves
SLAV-ur or SLAY-vur drool
slough Class (A)
SLUE marshy place
SLUF shed skin
sol Class (A)
SOLE do re mi fa ~
SAWL old French coin
soles Class (A)
SOULZ plural of sole
SOH-lase plural of sol (French coin)
sow Class (A)
SAU female pig
SOH plant seeds
stipulate Class (A)
STIP-yu-late request explicitly
STIP-yu-lut having stipules
subject Class (B)
SUB-jikt one who is ruled by another
sub-JEKT to subjugate
supply Class (A)
su-PLY provide
SUP-lee in a supple way
survey Class (B,E)
SUR-vay or sur-VAY inspect
sur-VAY or SUR-vay a report of what has been surveyed
suspect Class (B)
sus-PEKT he doesn’t ~ a thing
SUS-pekt he’s our main ~
swinger Class (A)
SWING-ur one who swings
SWIN-jur whopper
syndicate Class (B)
SIN-di-kut a business group
SIN-du-kate to sell to a syndicate
tang Class (C)
TANG sharp flavor
TONG Chinese dynasty
tangier Class (P)
TANG-ee-ur more tangy
tan-JIR Moroccan seaport
tarry Class (A)
TAIR-ee linger
TAR-ee covered with tar
taxes Class (A)
TAK-suz plural of tax
TAK-seez plural of taxis
taxis Class (A)
TAK-seez plural of taxi
TAK-sus manual reduction of a hernia
tear Class (A)
TAIR rip
TEER produced when crying
thou Class (A)
THEOW you
THOW a thousand
tier Class (A)
TEER row or rank
TIE-ur one who ties
toots Class (S)
TOOTS blows a horn
TUHTS short for Tootsie (slang)
tori Class (E,P)
TOR-ee singer ~ Amos
TOR-eye or TOR-ee plural of torus
torment Class (B,E)
TOR-ment agony
tor-MENT or TOR-ment mosquitoes ~ me
tower Class (A)
TAO-ur tall building
TOE-ur one who tows
transfer Class (B,E)
trans-FUR or TRANS-fur to move
TRANS-fur a transference
transplant Class (B)
trans-PLANT to move to another place
TRANS-plant the act of transplanting
transport Class (B)
trans-PORT to carry
TRANS-port the act of transporting
transpose Class (B)
trans-POZE to transform
TRANS-poze matrix formed by swapping rows and columns
triton Class (A)
TRY-ten type of mollusk
TRY-ton the nucleus of tritium
unionized Class (A)
YEWN-yun-ized ~ labor
un-EYE-on-ized ~ hydrogen
upset Class (B)
UP-set stomach ~
up-SET angry
use Class (B)
YOOS what’s the ~
YOOZ ~ the force
used Class (B)
YOOST I ~ to live in New York
YOOSED I ~ two towels
violist Class (A)
VIUL-ist viol player
vee-OH-lust viola player
whiffler Class (E)
WIF-lur one that clears the way for a procession
WIF-e-lur or WIF-lur one that changes his opinion
wind Class (A)
WIND moving air
WINED turn
withy Class (B,E)
WITHE-ee a flexible slender twig
WITH-ee or WITHE-ee flexibly tough
won Class (A)
WAHN Korean currency
WUN past tense of win
worms Class (P)
WURMZ fish bait
VORMZ German city
won Class (A)
WAHN Korean currency
WUN past tense of win
yak Class (E)
YAK long-haired ox
YAUK or YAK laugh (slang)
ye Class (E)
YEE oh ~ of little faith
YUH or THE or YEE ~ Old Gifte Shoppe

Top 500 English words

Rank Word
1 the
2 of
3 to
4 and
5 a
6 in
7 is
8 it
9 you
10 that
11 he
12 was
13 for
14 on
15 are
16 with
17 as
18 I
19 his
20 they
21 be
22 at
23 one
24 have
25 this
26 from
27 or
28 had
29 by
30 hot
31 but
32 some
33 what
34 there
35 we
36 can
37 out
38 other
39 were
40 all
41 your
42 when
43 up
44 use
45 word
46 how
47 said
48 an
49 each
50 she
51 which
52 do
53 their
54 time
55 if
56 will
57 way
58 about
59 many
60 then
61 them
62 would
63 write
64 like
65 so
66 these
67 her
68 long
69 make
70 thing
71 see
72 him
73 two
74 has
75 look
76 more
77 day
78 could
79 go
80 come
81 did
82 my
83 sound
84 no
85 most
86 number
87 who
88 over
89 know
90 water
91 than
92 call
93 first
94 people
95 may
96 down
97 side
98 been
99 now
100 find
101 any
102 new
103 work
104 part
105 take
106 get
107 place
108 made
109 live
110 where
111 after
112 back
113 little
114 only
115 round
116 man
117 year
118 came
119 show
120 every
121 good
122 me
123 give
124 our
125 under
126 name
127 very
128 through
129 just
130 form
131 much
132 great
133 think
134 say
135 help
136 low
137 line
138 before
139 turn
140 cause
141 same
142 mean
143 differ
144 move
145 right
146 boy
147 old
148 too
149 does
150 tell
151 sentence
152 set
153 three
154 want
155 air
156 well
157 also
158 play
159 small
160 end
161 put
162 home
163 read
164 hand
165 port
166 large
167 spell
168 add
169 even
170 land
171 here
172 must
173 big
174 high
175 such
176 follow
177 act
178 why
179 ask
180 men
181 change
182 went
183 light
184 kind
185 off
186 need
187 house
188 picture
189 try
190 us
191 again
192 animal
193 point
194 mother
195 world
196 near
197 build
198 self
199 earth
200 father
201 head
202 stand
203 own
204 page
205 should
206 country
207 found
208 answer
209 school
210 grow
211 study
212 still
213 learn
214 plant
215 cover
216 food
217 sun
218 four
219 thought
220 let
221 keep
222 eye
223 never
224 last
225 door
226 between
227 city
228 tree
229 cross
230 since
231 hard
232 start
233 might
234 story
235 saw
236 far
237 sea
238 draw
239 left
240 late
241 run
242 don’t
243 while
244 press
245 close
246 night
247 real
248 life
249 few
250 Stop
251 open
252 seem
253 together
254 next
255 white
256 children
257 begin
258 got
259 walk
260 example
261 ease
262 paper
263 often
264 always
265 music
266 those
267 both
268 mark
269 book
270 letter
271 until
272 mile
273 river
274 car
275 feet
276 care
277 second
278 group
279 carry
280 took
281 rain
282 eat
283 room
284 friend
285 began
286 idea
287 fish
288 mountain
289 north
290 once
291 base
292 hear
293 horse
294 cut
295 sure
296 watch
297 color
298 face
299 wood
300 main
301 enough
302 plain
303 girl
304 usual
305 young
306 ready
307 above
308 ever
309 red
310 list
311 though
312 feel
313 talk
314 bird
315 soon
316 body
317 dog
318 family
319 direct
320 pose
321 leave
322 song
323 measure
324 state
325 product
326 black
327 short
328 numeral
329 class
330 wind
331 question
332 happen
333 complete
334 ship
335 area
336 half
337 rock
338 order
339 fire
340 south
341 problem
342 piece
343 told
344 knew
345 pass
346 farm
347 top
348 whole
349 king
350 size
351 heard
352 best
353 hour
354 better
355 true .
356 during
357 hundred
358 am
359 remember
360 step
361 early
362 hold
363 west
364 ground
365 interest
366 reach
367 fast
368 five
369 sing
370 listen
371 six
372 table
373 travel
374 less
375 Morning
376 ten
377 simple
378 several
379 vowel
380 toward
381 war
382 lay
383 against
384 pattern
385 slow
386 center
387 love
388 person
389 money
390 serve
391 appear
392 road
393 map
394 science
395 rule
396 govern
397 pull
398 cold
399 notice
400 voice
401 fall
402 power
403 town
404 fine
405 certain
406 fly
407 unit
408 lead
409 cry
410 dark
411 machine
412 note
413 wait
414 plan
415 figure
416 star
417 box
418 noun
419 field
420 rest
421 correct
422 able
423 pound
424 done
425 beauty
426 drive
427 stood
428 contain
429 front
430 teach
431 week
432 final
433 gave
434 green
435 oh
436 quick
437 develop
438 sleep
439 warm
440 free
441 minute
442 strong
443 special
444 mind
445 behind
446 clear
447 tail
448 produce
449 fact
450 street
451 inch
452 lot
453 nothing
454 course
455 stay
456 wheel
457 full
458 force
459 blue
460 object
461 decide
462 surface
463 deep
464 moon
465 island
466 foot
467 yet
468 busy
469 test
470 record
471 boat
472 common
473 gold
474 possible
475 plane
476 age
477 dry
478 wonder
479 laugh
480 thousand
481 ago
482 ran
483 check
484 game
485 shape
486 yes
487 hot
488 miss
489 brought
490 heat
491 snow
492 bed
493 bring
494 sit
495 perhaps
496 fill
497 east
498 weight
499 language
500 among

GRE General Vocabulary Wordlist

:: 1162 words, sorry I am not a fan of screaming round numbers: these are the words I would be sure to know if I were taking GRE today.

abacus frame with balls for calculating
abate to lessen to subside
abdication giving up control authority
aberration straying away from what is normal
abet help/encourage smb (in doing wrong)
abeyance suspended action
abhor to hate to detest
abide be faithful to endure
abjure promise or swear to give up
abraded rubbed off worn away by friction
abrogate repeal or annul by authority
abscond to go away suddenly (to avoid arrest)
abstruse difficult to comprehend obscure
abut border on
abysmal bottomless extreme
acarpous effete no longer fertile worn out
acclaimed welcomed with shouts and approval
accolade praise approval
accretion the growing of separate things into one
adamant kind of stone inflexible
admonitory containing warning
adorn add beauty decorate
adulteration making unpure poorer in quality
affable polite and friendly
affinity close connection relationship
aggravate make worse irritate
agile active quick-moving
agog eager/excited
ail trouble be ill
alacrity eager and cheerful readiness
alcove recess/partially enclosed place
allegiance duty support loyalty
alleviate make (pain) easier to bear
alloy to debase by mixing with something inferior
aloof reserved indifferent
amalgamate mix combine unite societies
ambidextrous able to use the left hand or the right equally well
ambiguous doubtful uncertain
ambivalent having both of two contrary meanings
ameliorate improve make better
amortize end (a debt) by setting aside money
anguish severe suffering
animosity strong dislike
antidote medicine used against a poison or a disease
antithetical direct opposing
apartheid brutal racial discrimination
aplomb self-confidence
apostate one who abandons long-held religious or political convictions
apotheosis deification glorification to godliness
appease make quiet or calm
apprehensive grasping understanding fear unhappy feeling about future
apprise give notice to inform
approbation approval
apropos appropriate to the situation apt
apt well-suited quick-witted
arabesque a complex ornate design
arboreal of connected with trees
ardor enthusiasm
arduous steep difficult ascent laborious
argot jargon slang
arrant in the highest degree
arrogance proud superior manner of behaviour
articulate speak distinctly connect by joints
ascend go or come up
ascertain get to know
ascetic practicing self-denial austere stark
ascribe consider to be the origin of or belonging to
aseptic surgically clean
asperity roughness harshness ill temper irritability
aspersion slander
assail with attack violently
assiduous diligent hard-working sedulous
assuage make smth (pain desire) less
asterisk the mark * (e.g.. omitted letters)
astringent substance that shrinks
astute clever quick at seeing to get an advantage
atonement repayment death of Jesus
attenuate make thin. weaken enervate
attune bring into harmony
audacious daring foolishly bold impudent
augury omen sign
august majestic venerable
auspicious favorable successful prosperous
austere severely moral and strict simple and plain
auxiliary helping supporting
aver affirm assert prove justify
aversion strong dislike
avid eager greedy
avow admit. Declare openly
baleful harmful ominous causing evil
balk obstacle purposely to get on the way of
baneful causing harm or ruin pernicious destructive
barrage artificial obstacle built across a river
barren not good enough unable to have young ones without value
bask in enjoy warmth and light
beatify to bless make happy or ascribe a virtue to
bedizen to adorn especially in a cheap showy manner
belabor beat hard
bellicose belligerent pugnacious warlike
belligerent (person nation) waging war
benefactor person who has given help
benevolence wish or activity in doing good
benign kind and gentle mild (climate)
bequest arrangement to give smth at death
berate scold sharply
bereft rob or dispossess of smth (material)
bewilder puzzle confuse
bigot stubborn narrow-minded person
bilge bulge the protuberance of a cask
blandishment flattery coaxing
blandness polite manner comforting uninteresting
blatant noisy and rough
blithe cheerful casual carefree
bogus sham counterfeit not genuine
boisterous loud noisy rough lacking restraint
bolster give greatly needed support
boorish crude offensive rude
brash hasty rush cheeky saucy
brass yellow metal (mixing copper and zinc)
brazen made of brass
breach opening broken place breaking
brittle easily broken
broach bring up announce begin to talk about
brook to tolerate endure
buoyant able to float light-hearted
burgeon grow forth send out buds
burnish to polish rub to a shine
cabal a scheme or plot a group of plotters
cadge to beg to get by begging
cajole use flattery or deceit to persuade
calipers metal supports attached to the legs measuring instrument
calumny slander aspersion
candid frank straight-forward
cant insincere talk/jargon
cantankerous bad-tempered/quarrelsome
canvass discuss thoroughly sort of touting
castigate to chastise correct by punishing
castigation severe punishment
catalyst substance that causes speeding up
caustic biting sarcastic
censure expression of blame or disapproval a rebuke
centurion leader of a unit of 100 soldiers
chary cautious wary
chastened corrected punished
chastisement punishment
chauvinist a blindly devoted patriot
chicanery legal trickery/false argument
chisel steel tool for shaping materials
churl bad-tempered person
clamor shout complain with a lot of noise
clientele customers
clinch come to grips/settle conclusively
cling to resist separation
clot half-solid lump formed from liquid
cloture closing device (in Parliament) to end a debate by voting
coagulation change to a thick and solid state
coalescing coming together and uniting into one substance
coax get smb to do smth by kindness
coda passage that completes a piece of music
coddle treat with care and tenderness
coerce compel to force to make obedient
coeval of the same period coexisting
cogent strong convincing
cogitate think deeply mediate
cognizant being fully aware of
colander bowl-shaped vessel with many holes used to drain off water
collusion secret agreement for a deceitful purpose
combustion process of burning
commemorate keep the memory of
commodious having plenty of space for what is needed
commuter person who travels regularly
complaisance tending to comply obliging willingness to please
compunction feeling of regret for one’s action
conceal hide keep secret
conceit over-high opinion of too much pride
conciliatory reconciling soothing comforting mollifying
concord agreement or harmony
concur agree in opinion happen together
condense increase in density strength make laconic
condone forgive
congeal make or become stiff and solid
conjoin to join together
connoisseur a person with good judgement (e.g.. in art)
connotation suggestion in addition to
consequential pompous self important
console give comfort or sympathy to
conspicuous easily seen remarkable
consternation surprise and fear dismay
constrain compel
constrict make tight or smaller
consume get to the end of
consummate perfect/make perfect/complete
contemn to scorn or despise
contentious argumentative pugnacious combative quarrelsome
contiguous touching neighboring near
contrite filled with deep sorrow for wrongdoing
contumacious insubordinate rebellious
conundrum a riddle dilemma enigma
conviction convincing firm belief
convoke call together summon
convoluted complicated coiled twisted
cordial warm and sincere
cordon line (of police acting as a guard)
cornucopia abundant supply
corporeal physical of or for the body
correlate have a mutual relation
corroboration additional strengthening evidence
countenance to favor or approve of
counterfeit forgery
countervail counterbalance
covert disguised
covetous eagerly desirous
cower crouch shrink back
coy shy/modest (esp of a girl)
crass very great (es. stupidity)
cravat piece of linen worn as a necktie
craven cowardly
crease line made by crushing white line on the ground in cricket
credulity too great a readiness to believe things
credulous ready to believe things
crush press lose shape subdue overwhelm
cryptic secret with a hidden meaning
cumbersome burdensome heavy and awkward to carry
curmudgeon bad-tempered person
curriculum course of study
cursory quick hurried
curtail make shorter then was planned
dainty pretty/delicate(food)/difficult to please
daunt intimidate make fearful
dawdler person who is slow waste of time
dearth shortage
debacle a breakup overthrow sudden disaster
decorum propriety properness
decree order given by authority
decry disapprove of
defer postpone give way (to show respect)
deferential showing respect
defiance open disobedience or resistance
delineate to portray depict sketch out
deluge great flood heavy rush of water
demagogue person appealing not to reasons
demur to hesitate raise objections
denigrate blacken belittle sully defame
denouement an outcome or solution the unraveling of a plot
deplete use until none remains
deposition dethronement depositing
deprave make morally bad corrupt
deprecate protest against express disapproval of
dereliction deserting and leaving to fall into ruins
derision ridicule mockery deriding
derivative unoriginal obtained from another source
derogatory insulting tending to damage
descry catch sight of see smth in the distance
desiccant substance used to absorb moisture
desuetude cessation of use disuse
desultory aimless haphazard digressing at random
deter discourage hinder
detraction slandering verbal attack aspersion
detumescence diminishing or lessening of swelling
deviance being different in moral standards (from normal)
dexterity skill (esp. in handling)
diaphanous transparent gauzy
diatribe bitter and violent attack in words
diffidence shyness
dilate speak comprehensively become wider large
disallow refuse to allow or accept as a correct
discern see with an effort but clearly
discomfit confuse embarrass
disconcert upset the self-possession of
discountenance refuse to approve of
discourse speech lecture
discredit refuse to believe
discreet careful/prudent
discrete individually distinct
disdain look on with contempt
disencumber free from encumbrance
disheveled untidy
disingenuous sophisticated artful trying to deceive cunning
disinter dig up from the earth
dislodge move force from the place occupied
dismal sad gloomy miserable
disparate essentially different
disproof proof to the contrary
dissemble speak or behave so as to hide smth (in mind)
disseminate distribute (esp. ideas)
dissent have a different opinion refuse to assent
dissolution disintegration looseness in morals
distraught distracted violently upset in mind
divergence getting farther apart from a point
divestiture taking off getting rid of giving up
divulge make known smth secret
doggerel trivial poorly constructed verse
dogmatic positive certain arbitrary without room for discussion
dolt stupid fellow
dormant in a state of inactivity but awaiting development
dote show much fondness center one’s attention
drawl slow way of speaking
droll jesting
drone male bee person who isn’t self-employed
drowsiness feeling sleepy half asleep
dubious feeling doubt
dud no use person smth that fails
dulcet melodious harmonious
dupe cheat make a fool of
duplicity deliberate deception
duress threats to compel smb
dwarf person or smb much below the usual size
dynamo a generator something that produces electric current
earthenware dishes made of baked clay
ebullience exuberance outburst of feeling
ebullient overflowing with enthusiasm showing excitement
ecumenical representing the whole Christian world
edacious voracious devouring
eddy circular or spiral movement (e.g.. of wind)
edible fit to be eaten/not poisonous
effete infertile worn out weak
efficacy production of a desired result
effluvia outflow in a stream of particles a noxious odor or vapor
effrontery boldness impudence arrogance
egress way out exit
elaborate worked out with much care in great detail
elegy a lament a melancholy composition
elicit draw out
eloquence fluent speaking skillful use of language
emaciate make thin and weak
embellish make beautiful
embezzle use in a wrong way for one’s own benefit
emote stir up excite
empirical relying on experiment
encapsulate enclose in capsule
encomium warm or glowing praise eulogy panegyric
encumbrance burden things that get on the way of
endearing making dear or liked
endemic epidemic
endorse write one’s name on the back of
enduring lasting
enervate weaken deprive of strength attenuate
engender cause produce give rise to
engrave impress deeply
engrossing taken up all the time or attention writing in large or formal
engulf swallow up
enigma smth that is puzzling
enmity hatred being an enemy
ensign flag/badge
entangle put into difficulties
enthral please greatly/enslave (fig)
entice tempt or persuade
entreat ask earnestly
enunciate pronounce (words)/express a theory
enzyme catalyst
epicurean devoted to pleasure (sensuous enjoyment)
epistle letter
epithet adjective
epitome brief summary representative example a typical model
equable steady regular
equanimity calmness of temperament
equilibrium state of being balanced
equipoise equal distribution of weight equilibrium
equivocal having a double or doubtful meaning suspicious
equivocate try to deceive by equivocal language
eradicate get rid of pull up by the roots
erratic irregular in behaviour or opinion
erudite learned scholarly
eschew avoid
esoteric abstruse intended only for a small circle of
espouse marry give one’s support to
eulogy formal praise panegyric
euphoria elation state of pleasant excitement
euthanasia easy and painless death
evasive tending to evade
evince to show clearly to indicate
evoke call up bring out
excoriation severe criticism
exculpate to clear from a charge of guilt
exhaustive complete thorough
exigency emergency an urgent situation
exoneration set smb clear free (e.g.. from blame)
exorbitant much too high or great
expatiate to roam wander freely
expedient likely to be useful for a purpose
expiation ending expiring
exploit brilliant achievement develop use selfishly
expostulate argue earnestly to dissuade correct or protest
expurgate to remove obscenity purify censor
exscind to cut out cut away
extant still in existence
extempore without previous thought or preparation
extenuate reduce the strength of lessen seriousness partially excuse
extinct no longer active
extinguish end the existence of/wipe or put out
extirpate to destroy exterminate cut out exscind
extol praise highly
extort obtain by threats violence
extralegal outside the law
extricable that can be freed
extrovert cheerful person
exuberance state of growing vigorously being full of life
facetious humorous funny jocular
facile easily done
fallacious based on error
falter waver/move in an uncertain manner
fatuous without sense foolish self-satisfaction
fawn young deer try to win smb’s favor
feckless lacking purpose or vitality ineffective careless
fecund fertile
feint pretend
felicitous apt suitably expressed well chosen apropos
felon person guilty of murder
ferment substance become excited
ferocity savage cruelty
ferret discover by searching search
fervid showing earnest feeling
fervor warmth of feelings earnestness
fetid stinking
fetter to shackle put in chains
feud bitter quarrel over a long period of time
fidelity loyalty accuracy
fidget move restlessly make nervous
figurehead carved image on the prow of a ship
finesse delicate way of dealing with a situation
finical too fussy about food clothing etc.
finicky finical
fission splitting or division (esp. of cells)
fixate stare at
flak criticism/anti-aircraft guns
flamboyant brightly colored florid
flaunting show off complacently
flax pale yellow (hair) a plant
fledged able to fly trained experienced
fleet number of ships quick-moving
flinch draw move back wince
flop fail/move/fall clumsily
florid very much ornamented naturally red (e.g.. of face)
flout reject mock to go against (as in going against tradition)
fluke lucky stroke
fluster make nervous or confused
foible defect of character (a person is wrongly proud)
foil prevent from carrying out contrast
foment put smth warm (to lessen the pain)
foolproof incapable of failure or error
foppish like a man who pays too much attention to his clothes
forage food for horses and cattle
forbear refrain from be patient ancestor
forbearance patience willingness to wait
ford shallow place in a river (to cross)
forestall prevent by taking action in advance preempt
forfeit suffer the loss of smth
forge workshop for the shaping of metal to shape metal lead
forgery counterfeit
forswear renounce disallow repudiate
foster nurture care for
fracas noisy quarrel
fragile easily injured broken or destroyed
fragrant sweet-smelling
frantic wildly excited with joy pain anxiety
frenetic frantic frenzied
fret worry irritation wear away
fringe edge ornamental border part of hair over the forehead
froward intractable not willing to yield or comply stubborn
frugal careful economical
fulmination bitter protest
fulsome disgusting offensive due to excessiveness
gainsay to deny to oppose
garble make unfair selection from facts
garment article of clothing
garner to gather and save to store up
garrulity talkativeness
garrulous too talkative
gaucherie socially awkward tactless behavior
germane relevant pertinent to
gist the point general sense
glean gather facts in small quantities
glib ready and smooth but not sincere
glimmer weak/unsteady light
gloat over look at with selfish delight
glut supply to much fill to excess
gnaw waste away bite steadily
goad smth urging a person to action
gorge eat greedily/narrow opening with a stream
gossamer soft light delicate material
gouge tool for cutting grooves in wood
grandiloquent using pompous words
grave serious requiring consideration
graze touch or scrape lightly in passing
gregarious living in societies liking the company
grievous causing grief or pain serious dire grave
grovel crawl humble oneself
guile deceit cunning
gullible easily gulled
gush burst out suddenly/talk ardently
gust outburst of feeling sudden rain wind fire etc.
hack cut roughly hired horse
halcyon calm and peaceful
hallow to make holy consecrate
harangue a long passionate speech
harbinger smth or smb that foretells the coming of
harrow to distress create stress or torment
haughty arrogant conceited
heed attention/give notice to
heinous odious (of crime)
heresy belief contrary to what is generally accepted
hermetic sealed by fusion
heterogeneous made up of different kinds
hew make by hard work cut (by striking)
highbrow (person) with superior tastes
hirsute hairy shaggy
hoax mischievous trick played on smb for a joke
hoi polloi the masses the rabble
hollow not soled with hole
holster leather case for a pistol
homiletics act of preaching
hone stone used for sharpening tools
hoodwink trick mislead
hospitable liking to give hospitality
hubris arrogant pride
hush make or become silent
husk worthless outside part of anything
hypocrisy falsely making oneself appear to be good
iconoclast person who attacks popular beliefs
idiosyncrasy personal mannerism
idolatry excessive admiration of
idyll a carefree episode or experience
ignoble dishonorable common undignified
ignominious shameful dishonorable undignified disgraceful
illicit unlawful forbidden
imbroglio complicated and embarrassing situation
immaculate pure faultless
imminent likely to come or happen soon
immutable that cannot be changed
impair worsen diminish in value
impassive unmoved feeling no sign of passion
impecunious having little or no money
impede hinder get in the way of
impediment smth that hinders (e.g. stammer)
impending imminent being about to happen expected
imperative urgent essential
imperious commanding haughty arrogant
impermeable that cannot be permeated
imperturbable calm not capable of being excited
impervious not allowing to pass through (of materials)
imperviousness haughty arrogant commanding
impetuous having sudden energy impulsive thrusting ahead forceful
impiety lack of reverence or dutifulness
implacable incapable of being placated unpleasable
implicate show that smb has a share
implicit implied though not plainly expressed
implosion collapse bursting inward
importune beg urgently solicit (of a prostitute)
imprecation an invocation of evil a curse
impromptu without preparation
impudent rash indiscreet
impugned challenged to be doubted
impute to attribute to a cause or source ascribe
inadvertent not paying proper attention
inane silly senseless
inasmuch since because
incense make angry
incessant often repeated continual
inchoate not yet fully formed rudimentary elementary
incipient beginning
incise engrave make a cut in
incite stir up rouse
inclined directing the mind in a certain direction
incongruous out of place not in harmony or agreement
incorrigibility cannot be cured or corrected
incredulous skeptical unwilling to believe
inculcate fix firmly by repetition
incumbents official duties
incursion a raid a sudden attack
indefatigability not easily exhaustible tirelessness
indelible that cannot be rubbed out
indigence poverty
indigenous native
indistinct not easily heard seen clearly marked
indolence laziness
indomitable not easily discouraged or subdued
indulge gratify give way to satisfy allow oneself
indulgent inclined to indulge
ineffable to great to be described in words
ineluctable certain inevitable
inept unskillful said or done at the wrong time
ineptitude quality of being unskillful
inferno hell
infuriate fill with fury or rage
infuse put pour fill
ingenuous naive young artless frank honest sincere
ingest take in by swallowing
inimical harmful or friendly
inimitable defying imitation unmatchable
innocuous causing no harm
inscrutable incapable of being discovered or understood
insensible unconscious unresponsive unaffected
insinuate suggest unpleasantly make a way for smth gently
insipid without taste or flavor
insouciant unconcerned carefree
insularity narrow-mindedness isolated
insurrection rising of people to open resistance to
interdict prohibit forbid
interim as an installment
intersperse place here and there
intransigence unwillingness to compromise stubbornness intractability
intransigent uncompromising
intrepid fearless brave undaunted
introspection examining one’s own thoughts and feelings
inundate flood cover by overflowing
inured accustomed to adapted
invective abusive language curses
inveigh to attack verbally denounce deprecate
inveterate deep-rooted. long-established
invincible too strong to be defeated
involute complex
irascible irritable easily angered
irate angry
ire anger
irksome tiresome
irresolute hesitating undecided
irrevocable final and unalterable
itinerate to travel from place to place to peregrinate
jabber talk excitedly utter rapidly
jibe gibe make fun of
jocular meant as a joke
judicious sound in judgment wise
knit draw together unite firmly
labyrinthine to entangle the state of affairs
lachrymose causing tears tearful
lackluster (of eyes) dull
lament show feel great sorrow
lassitude weariness tiredness
latent present but not yet active developed or visible
laudatory expressing or giving praise
lavish giving or producing freely liberally or generously
legacy smth handed down from ancestors
levee formal reception/embankment
levity lack of seriousness
libel statement that damages reputation
liberality free giving generosity
libertine immoral person
lien legal claim until a debt on it is repaid
limn paint portray
limp lacking strength walking unevenly
lionize treat as a famous person
lithe bending twisting
loll rest to sit or stand in a lazy way hang (dog’s tongue)
lope move along with long strides
loquacious talkative garrulous
lucubrate write in scholarly fashion
luculent easily understood lucid clear
lugubrious mournful excessively sad
lull become quiet or less active
lumber move in a clumsy/noisy way
luminary star light-giving body
lurk be out of view ready to attack
lustrous being bright polished
macabre gruesome suggesting death
macerate make or become soft by soaking in water
machination plot scheme (esp. evil)
maladroit tactless clumsy
malapropism misuse of a word (for one that resembles it)
malevolence wishing to do evil
malign injurious speak ill of smb tell lie
malinger to fake illness or injury in order to shirk a duty
malleable yielding easily shaped moldable adapting
manacle chains for the hands or feet
massacre cruel killing of a large number of people
matriculation be admitted enter a university as a student
maudlin sentimental in a silly or tearful way
maul hurt by rough handling
maverick rebel nonconformist
mellifluous sweetly flowing
mendacity dishonesty
mendicant a beggar
mercurial quick changeable in character fleeting
meretricious attractive on the surface but of little value
mesmerize hypnotize
meticulous giving great attention to details
mettle quality of endurance or courage
mettlesome courageous high-spirited
middling fairly good but not very good
minatory menacing threatening
mince pronounce or speak affectedly euphemize
misanthrope person who hates mankind
mischievous harmful causing mischief
miser person who loves wealth and spends little
misogynist one who hates women/females
moderation quality of being limited not extreme
mollify make calmer or quieter
molt moult lose hair feathers before new growing
morbid diseased unhealthy (e.g.. about ideas)
morose ill-tempered unsocial
muffler cloth worn round the neck/silencer
multifarious varied motley greatly diversified
mundane worldly as opposed to spiritual commonplace everyday
myriad very great number
nadir lowest weakest point
nascent coming into existence emerging
nebulous cloud-like hazy vague indistinct
negligent taking too little care
neophyte person who has been converted to a belief
nexus a connection tie or link
nibble show some inclination to accept (an offer)
noisome offensive disgusting (smell)
nonchalant not having interest
nonplused greatly surprised
nostrum a quack remedy an untested cure
noxious harmful
nugatory trifling/worthless
obdurate hardened and unrepenting stubborn inflexible
obfuscate to darken make obscure muddle
oblivious unaware having no memory
obloquy abusively detractive language sharp criticism vituperation
obsequious too eager to obey or serve
obstreperous noisy loud
obtain to be established accepted or customary
obtrusive projecting prominent undesirably noticeable
obtuse blunt/stupid
obviate to make unnecessary get rid of
occluded blocked up
odious repulsive hateful
odium contempt dislike aversion
odor smell favor reputation
officious too eager or ready to help offer advice
ominous threatening
onerous needing effort burdensome
opaqueness dullness/not allowing light to pass through
opprobrious showing scorn or reproach
ossify to turn to bone to settle rigidly into an idea
ostensible seeming appearing as such professed
ostentation display to obtain admiration or envy
ostracism shut out from society refuse to meet talk
overhaul examine thoroughly to learn about the condition
overweening presumptuously arrogant overbearing immoderate being a jerk
paean song of praise or triumph
palate roof of the mouth sense of taste
palatial magnificent
palliate lessen the severity of
palpability can be felt touched understood
palpitate tremble beat rapidly and irregularly
panegyric formal praise eulogy
paradigm a model example or pattern
parenthesis sentence within another one smth separated
pariah an outcast a rejected and despised person
parsimonious too economical miserly
partisan one-sided committed to a party biased or prejudiced
patron regular customer person who gives support
paucity scarcity a lacking of
peccadillo small sin small weakness in one’s character
pedantic bookish showing off learning
pedestrian commonplace trite unremarkable
pellucid transparent easy to understand
penchant strong inclination a liking
penitent feeling or showing regret
penurious poor/stingy
penury extreme poverty
peregrination traveling about wandering
peremptory urgent imperative unchallengeable ending debate
perfidious treacherous faithless
perfidy treachery breaking of faith
perfunctory done as a duty without care
perilous dangerous
peripatetic wandering
perish be destroyed decay
perjury willful FALSE statement unlawful act
permeate spread into every part of
pernicious harmful injurious
perpetrate be guilty commit (a crime)
personable pleasing in appearance attractive
perspicacity quick judging and understanding
pertain belong as a part have reference
pest destructive thing or a person who is nuisance
petrified taken away power (to think feel act)
petrify to make hard rocklike
petrous like a rock hard stony
petulant unreasonably impatient
philistine a smug ignorant person one who lacks knowledge
phlegmatic calm sluggish temperament unemotional
picaresque involving clever rogues or adventurers
pied of mixed colors
pinch be too tight take between the thumb and finger
pine waste away through sorrow or illness
pious dutiful to parents devoted to religion
piquant agreeably pungent stimulating
pique hurt the pride or self-respect stir (curiosity)
pitfall covered hole as a trap unsuspected danger
pith essential part force soft liquid substance
pivotal of great importance (others depend on it)
placate soothe pacify calm
plaintive mournful melancholy sorrowful
plaque flat metal on a wall as a memorial
platitude a trite or banal statement unoriginality
plea request
plead address a court of law as an advocate
plethora glut
pliant pliable easily bent shaped or twisted
plod continue doing smth without resting
pluck pull the feathers off pick (e.g.. flowers)
plumb get to the root of
plummet fall plunge steeply
plunge move quickly suddenly and with force
poignant deeply moving keen
poncho large piece of cloth
ponderous heavy bulky dull
portent omen marvelous threatening
precarious uncertain risky dangerous
precepts rules establishing standards of conduct
preclude prevent make impossible
precursory preliminary anticipating
predilection special liking mental preference
predominate have more power than others
preen tidy/show self-satisfaction
premature doing or happening smth before the right time
preponderance greatness in number strength weight
presage warning sign
presumption arrogance
preternatural not normal or usual
prevalent common
prevaricate to equivocate to stray from the truth
prim neat formal
pristine primitive unspoiled pure as in earlier times unadulterated
probity uprightness incorruptibility principle
proclivity inclination
procrastination keeping on putting off
prodigal wasteful reckless with money
prodigious enormous wonderful
profane worldly having contempt for God
profligacy shameless immorality
profligate wasteful prodigal licentious extravagant
profundity depth
profuse abundant/lavish
proliferate grow reproduce by rapid multification
prolix tiring because too long
prone prostrate inclined to (undesirable things)
propagation increasing the number spreading extending
propinquity nearness in time or place affinity of nature
propitiatory conciliatory appeasing mitigating
propitious auspicious presenting favorable circumstances
prosaic everyday mundane commonplace trite pedestrian
proscribe denounce as dangerous
protracted prolonged
provident frugal looking to the future
provisional of the present time only
provoke make angry vax
prudence careful forethought
prudish easily shocked excessively modest
prune dried plum silly person
pry get smth inquire too curiously
pucker wrinkle
pugnacious fond of in the habit of fighting
puissance strength
punctilious precise paying attention to trivialities
pundit pedant authority on a subject
pungency sharpness stinging quality
purvey provide supply
pusillanimous cowardly craven
putrefaction becoming rotten
pyre large pile of wood for burning
quack person dishonestly claiming to smth
quaff drink deeply
quail lose courage turn frightened
qualm feeling of doubt temporary feeling of sickness
quandary state of doubt or perplexity
quell suppress subdue
quibble try to avoid by sophistication
quiescence state of being passive/motionless
quiescent at rest dormant torpid
quirk habit or action peculiar to smb or smth
quixotic generous unselfish
quotidian banal everyday
rabble mob crowd the lower classes of populace
raconteur person who tells anecdotes
raffish low vulgar base tawdry
ramify to be divided or subdivided to branch out
rancorous feeling bitterness spitefulness
rant use extravagant language
rapacious greedy (esp for money)
rarefy to make thin to make less dense to purify or refine
rave act with excessive enthusiasm
reactionary opposing progress
rebuff snub
recalcitrant disobedient
recant take back as being FALSE give up
recast cast or fashion anew
recidivism relapse into antisocial or criminal behavior
reciprocity granting of privileges in return for similar
recitals a number of performance of music
recluse person who lives alone and avoids people
recompense make payment to reward punish
reconcile settle a quarrel restore peace
recondite little known abstruse
recreancy cowardice a cowardly giving up
recuperate become strong after illness loss exhaustion
redeem get back by payment compensate
redoubtable formidable causing fear
refine make or become pure cultural
refractory stubborn unmanageable untractable
refulgent shining brilliant
regale to delight or entertain to feast
regicide crime of killing a king
reiterate say or do again several times
rejuvenation becoming young in nature or appearance
relapse fall back again
remonstrate to protest object
render deliver provide represent
renovate restore smth to better condition
renowned celebrated famous
repast meal
repel refuse to accept/cause dislike
repine at be discontented with
reproach scold upbraid
reprobate person hardened in sin one devoid of decency
repudiate disown refuse to accept or pay
repulsive causing a feeling of disgust
requite repay give in return
rescind repeal/annul/cancel
resigned unresisting submissive
resilience quality of quickly recovering the original shape
resort to frequently visit
restive refusing to move reluctant to be controlled
resuscitation coming back to consciousness
retard check hinder
reticent reserved untalkative silent taciturn
revere have deep respect for
reverent feeling or showing deep respect
riddle puzzling person or thing
rift split crack dissension
rivet fix take up secure metal pin
roll call calling of names
rotund rich and deep plump and round
ruffian violent cruel man
rumple make rough
sagacious having sound judgment perceptive wise like a sage
salacious obscene
salubrious healthful
salutary remedial wholesome causing improvement
sanctimony self-righteousness hypocritical with FALSE piety
sanction approval (by authority) penalty
sanguine cheerful confident optimistic
sanity health of mind soundness of judgement
sash long strip worn round the waist
satiate satisfy fully
saturnine gloomy dark sullen morose
savant person of great learning
savor taste flavor smth
sawdust tiny bits of wood
scabbard sheath for the blade
scent smell (esp pleasant)
scorch become discolored/dry up/go at high speed
scribble write hastily
scurvy mean contemptible
secular material (not spiritual) living outside monasteries
sedulous persevering
seminal like a seed constituting a source originative
sententious short and pithy full of maxims/proverbs
sequence succession connected line of
sere make hard and without feeling
sermon reproving a person for his faults
serrated having a toothed edge
serration having a toothed edge
servile like a slave lacking independence
sever break off
severance severing
shallow little depth not earnest
shard piece of broken earthenware
sheath cover for the blade of a weapon or a tool
shrewd astute showing sound judgement
shrill sharp piercing
shun keep away from avoid
shunt send from one track to another lay aside evade discussion
sidestep step to one side
simper (give a) silly/self-conscious smile
sinuous winding undulating serpentine
skiff small boat
skit short piece of humorous writing
slack sluggish dull not tight
slake to assuage to satisfy allay
slate king of blue-grey stone propose criticize
sluggard lazy slow-moving person
slur join sounds/words (indistinct)
smolder burn slowly without flame
snare trap
snub treat with contempt
soar rise fly high
sober self-controlled
sobriety quality or condition of being sober
sodden soaked saturated
soggy heavy with water
solvent of the power of forming a solution
somatic of the body
soot black powder in smoke
sophisticated complex subtle refined
sophistry fallacious reasoning faulty logic
sophomoric self-assured though immature affected bombastic overblown
soporific producing sleep
sordid wretched comfortless contemptible
spear weapon with a metal point on a long shaft
specious illogical of questionable truth or merit
splenetic bad-tempered irritable
splice join (two ends)
sponge porous rubber for washing live at once expense
spurious FALSE counterfeit
spurn have nothing to do reject or refuse
squalid foul filthy
squander spend wastefully
squat crouch/settle without permission
stanch to stop the flow of a fluid
steeply rising or falling sharply
stentorian extremely loud and powerful
stickler person who insists on importance of smth
stigma mark of shame or disgrace
stigmatize describe smb scornfully
sting smth sharp
stingy spending using unwillingly
stint to be thrifty to set limits
stipple paint with dots
stipulate state or put forward as a necessary condition
stolid showing no emotion impassive
stray wander lose one’s way
streak long thin move very fast
striated striped grooved or banded
stride walk with long steps
strut a supporting bar
stygian hence dark gloomy
stymie to hinder obstruct or block
subdue overcome bring under control
sublime extreme astounding
submerge put under water liquid sink out of sight
suborn induce by bribery or smth to commit perjury
subpoena written order requiring a person to appear in a low court
substantiation giving facts to support (statement)
subsume include under a rule
succor assistance relief in time of distress
suffice be enough
suffocate cause or have difficulty in breathing
sullied to be stained or discredited
summarily briefly without delay
sumptuous magnificent
sundry various miscellaneous separate
supercilious disdainful characterized by haughty scorn
superfluous more then is needed or wanted
superimpose put smth on the top
supersede take the place of
supine lying on the back slow to act passive
suppliant asking humbly beseeching
supplicate make a humble petition to
suppress prevent from being known put an end to
surcharge additional load/charge
surfeit satiate feed to fulness or to excess
susceptibility sensitiveness
swerve change direction suddenly
sycophant person who flatter to the rich and powerful
synopsis summary or outline
taciturn untalkative silent
tadpole form of a frog when it leaves the egg
talon claw of a bird of prey
tamp tap or drive down by repeated light blows
tamper interfere with
tangential suddenly changeable
tarnished lost brightness
tassel bunch of threads
taunt contemptuous reproach hurtful remark
taut tightly stretched
tautology a repetition a redundancy
tawdry cheap gaudy showy tacky
teetotal oppose to alcohol
temerity boldness brashness intrepidness
temperance abstinence from alcohol self-control moderation
temperate showing self-control
tenacity firmness persistency adhesiveness tending to hang on
tenuous insubstantial flimsy weak
tepid lukewarm
terse brief and to the point
testiness witness/evidence
thrift care economy thriving prosperous
thwart obstruct/frustrate
timid shy easily frightened
timorous fearful timid afraid
toady obsequious flatterer
tonic smth giving strength or energy
topple be unsteady and overturn
torment severe pain or suffering
torpid sleeping sluggish lethargic dormant
torque twisting force causing rotation
tortuous devious/not straightforward
tout person who worries others to buy smth to use his service
tractable easily controlled or guided
transgress break go beyond (a limit)
transient temporary fleeting
transitory brief
travesty parody/imitation
trenchant forceful effective vigorous extremely perceptive incisive
trepidation alarm excited state of mind
trickle flow in drops
trifling unimportant
trite not new
truce (agreement) stop of fighting for a time
truculence aggressiveness ferocity
trudge walk heavily
turbid muddy having the sediment stirred up
turbulence being uncontrolled violent
turgid excessively ornate swollen or bloated
turmoil trouble disturbance
turpitude wickedness shamefulness
turquoise greenish-blue precious stone
tyro tiro beginner
ubiquitous present everywhere
ulterior situated beyond
umbrage offense resentment
uncouth rough awkward
underbid make a lower bid then smb else
undermine weaken gradually at the base make smth under
undulate to move in wavelike fashion fluctuate
unearth discover and bring to light
unencumbered easy-going trifle
unfeigned not pretended sincere
unscathed unharmed unhurt
untoward unfortunate inconvenient
upbraid scold reproach
urbane elegant refined in manners
vacillation being uncertain hesitating
vagary strange act or idea
vain without use result conceited
valiant brave
valorous brave
vanquish conquer
veer change direction
venal ready to do smth dishonest
veneer surface appearance covering the TRUE nature
veneration regard with deep respect
veracity truth
verdant fresh and green
verisimilitude appearing TRUE or real
veritable real rightly named
verve spirit vigor enthusiasm
vestige trace or sign
vex annoy distress trouble
vigilance watchfulness self-appointed group who maintain order
vigilant member of a vigilance committee
vigorous strong energetic
vilify slander say evil things
vindictive having a desire to revenge
virago a loud domineering woman a scold or nag
visceral of the internal organs of the body
viscous sticky/semi-fluid
vitiate lower the quality weaken the strength
vituperate curse abuse in words
vivacious lively high-spirited
volatile changeable inconstant fickle unstable explosive
volubility fluency verbosity easy use of spoken language
voluble fluent
waffle talk vaguely and without much result
waft scent waving movement carry lightly through
wag merry person
warmonger person who stirs up war
warrant authority written order guarantee
wean to turn away (from a habit)
weigh measure hoe heavy smth is
welter turmoil a bewildering jumble
wend to go proceed
whimsical full of odd and fanciful ideas
wince show bodily or mental pain
woo try to win
writ written order
yarn tale story fibers for knitting

 

Słowa stworzone przez Shakespeara

Na pewno znacie tego słynnego angielskiego barda.

Przyczynił się on bardzo do rozwoju języka angielskiego.

Stworzył wiele słów których lista znajduje sie tutaj:

Nouns:

accused addiction alligator amazement anchovies assassination backing bandit bedroom bump buzzers courtship critic dauntless dawn design dickens discontent embrace employer engagements excitements exposure eyeball fixture futurity glow gust hint immediacy investments kickshaws leapfrog luggage manager mimic misgiving mountaineer ode outbreak pageantry pedant perusal questioning reinforcement retirement roadway rumination savagery scuffles shudders switch tardiness transcendence urging watchdog wormhole zany Verbs:
besmirch bet blanket cake cater champion compromise cow denote deracinate dialogue dislocate divest drug dwindle elbow enmesh film forward gossip grovel hobnob humour hurry impedes jet jig label lapse lower misquote negotiate numb pander partner petition puke rant reword secure submerge swagger torture unclog

Adjectives:

aerial auspicious baseless beached bloodstained blushing circumstantial consanguineous deafening disgraceful domineering enrapt epileptic equivocal eventful fashionable foregone frugal generous gloomy gnarled hush inaudible invulnerable jaded juiced lackluster laughable lonely lustrous madcap majestic marketable monumental nervy noiseless oscene olympian premeditated promethean quarrelsome radiance rancorous reclusive remorseless rival sacrificial sanctimonious softhearted splitting stealthy traditional tranquil unmitigated unreal varied vaulting viewless widowed worthless yelping

Adverbs:

importantly instinctively obsequiously threateningly tightly trippingly unaware

neither – either

NEITHER

EITHER
BOTH

(1) neither

There are 2 pubs in my street.
Neither pub is nice.

(2) neither of the/these/those/my
I’ve read neither of these books.

(3)
Is she American or English?
Neither.She is Australian.

(4) Neither…nor…(ani..ani…)
He neither wrote nor phoned.
Neither John norTom came to me.

(5)
-‘I haven’t done my homework’
-‘Neither has he.’

(6)
Mr Flower doesn’t like cats. Neither does he like dogs.

Mary isn’t going to study. Neither is she going to work.

You mustn’t smoke! Neither must you drink alcohol.

(1) either
There are 2 pubs in my street.
We can go to either pub.(2) either of the/these/my/his
I haven’t read either of these books.

(3)
Do you want tea or coffee?
Either. I don’t mind.

(4) either…or…(albo…albo)
She is either English or American.
Either you stay or you go!

(5)
I haven’t done my homework and he hasn’t done it either.

Mr Flowers doesn’t like cats. He doesn’t like dogs either.

Mary isn’t going to study. She isn’t going to work either.

You mustn’t smoke! You mustn’t drink alcohol either.


!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
EITHER (też, także)-przeczenia
He doesn’t know her either.

TOO (też, także)-zd. oznajmujące
He knows her too.


(1) both
There are 2 pubs in my street.
Both (pubs) are nice.(2) both of the/these/my/his
Both of these pubs are nice.
Both of my parents live in London.
(Both my parents live in London.)

(3) both of us/you/them
Both of us knew him.=We both knew him.
Both of them liked the film.=They both liked the film.

(4)both…and…(zarówno..jak…)
He is both an actor and a director.
Both Ann and Jim were late.



EACH OTHER/ ONE ANOTHER – się, siebie nawzajem

(dotyczy 2 osób) (odnosi się do więcej niż 2 osób)

*John and his friend telephone each other.
*John and his friends telephone one another.
*Tom and Mary like each other.

!!! They looked at each other. (Spojrzeli jeden na drugiego.)

They looked at themselves. (Spojrzeli na samych siebie.)

Podział zaimków

Zaimki (Pronouns) – wyrazy, które zastępują rzeczowniki lub całe grupy rzeczownikowe – możemy podzielić na następujące grupy:

zaimki osobowe (Personal Pronouns)
zaimki dzierżawcze (Possessive Pronouns)
zaimki zwrotne i emfatyczne (Reflexive Pronouns, Emphasizing Pronouns)
zaimki wskazujące (Demonstrative Pronouns)
zaimki pytające (Interrogative Pronouns)
zaimki względne (Relative Pronouns)
zaimki nieokreślone (Indefinite Pronouns)