Linking words


BECAUSE (ponieważ)
I don’t want to eat anything because I’m not hungry.

OTHERWISE (w przeciwnym razie, w przeciwnym wypaku)
You should take an umbrella with you. Otherwise you might get wet.
Take a map. Otherwise you might get lost.

IN CASE (w razie…, na wypadek gdyby…)
*in case + present simple (mówiąc o przyszłości)
We will buy some food in case Tom comes.
You should insure your bicycle in case it is stolen.

*in case +past tense (mówiąc o tym dlaczego ktoś coś zrobił)
We bought some food in case Tom came.
I drew a map for Sam in case she couldn’t find a house.

SO THAT (po to żeby..)
*so that……….won’t/ wouldn’t/ don’t
Leave early so that don’t/won’t miss your train. (mówiąc o przyszłości)
I hurried so that I wouldn’t be late. (mówiąc o przeszłości)

*so that………..can/ could
She is learning English so that she can study in America.
We moved to London so that we could see our friends more often.

*kiedy jedna osoba robi coś po to aby druga mogła zrobić coś innego
She wore glasses so that nobody could recognise her.
I gave her my address so that she could contact me.

· rzeczownik: In spite of /Despite the rain they enjoyed themselves.
· this, that….: She didn’t feel well. In spite of this she went to work.
· doing sth: In spite of /Despite having all the necessary qualifications, he didn’t get the job.
· the fact that…: I didn’t get the job in spite of /despite the fact that I had all the necessary qualifications.

Although it rained a lot we enjoyed our holiday.
Although the traffic was bad I got to work on time.
I didn’t get the job though I had all the necessary qualifications.

EXCEPT +infinitive (bez to)
I could do nothing except agree with her.