Past Perfect

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Jak tworzymy ten czas?

Zdanie twierdzące

Dodajemy had i czasownik w trzeciej formie

osoba had czasownik w III formie reszta
I had finished this book.
You had saved $2000.
She had finished this job.
He had attended 2000 lectures.
It had been paid off  
We had taken our exam.
You had passed your driving tests.
They had done their packing.

Zdanie przeczące

Dodajemy not po had!

osoba had not czasownik w III formie reszta
I had not finished this book.
You had not saved $2000.
She had not finished this job.
He had not attended 2000 lectures.
It had not been paid off  
We had not taken our exam.
You had not passed your driving tests.
They had not done their packing.

Zdanie pytające

Inwersja had z osobą!

had osoba czasownik w III formie reszta
had I finished this book.
had you saved $2000.
had she finished this job.
had he attended 2000 lectures.
had it been paid off  
had we taken our exam.
had you passed your driving tests.
had they done their packing.

Formy skrócone

had -> ‘d

had not -> hadn’t

Kiedy używamy czasu Past Perfect?

  1. “Przeszłość w przeszłości” – gdy przeszła czynność miała miejsce PRZED inną przeszłą czynnością:
    She was sorry that she hadn’t been nicer to him. (“was sorry” – to czynność z przeszłości ale “hadn’t been nicer to him” to czynność która miała miejsce WCZEŚNIEJ)
    UWAGA! Gdy mówimy o 2 czynnościach w kolejności w jakiej występowały użycie czasu Past Perfect nie jest konieczne:
    When I opened the window the cat jumped out.
    After she finished her exams she went to London for two weeks.
    As soon as he put the phone down it rang again.
  2. Gdy mówimy o czynności, która miała miejsce przed pewnym momentem w przeszłości:
    Before we had finished our dinner he ordered us back to work.
    By that time we had read all the books.
  3. Jako odpowiednik czasu Present Perfect w przeszłości
    Zdanie terażniejsze: I’ve lost my purse.
    Zdanie przeszłe: She had lost her purse and had to borrow money from Lucy.
  4. Gdy mówimy o czynności, która rozpoczęła się przed momentem mówienia (też w przeszłości) i
    (a) wciąż trwała
    John was in uniform when I met him. He had been a soldier for six years, and planned to stay in the army till he was fourty.
    (b) zakończyła się w tym czasie lub bezpośrednio przed nim
    The old beech tree, which had stood in the courtyard for 250 years, suddenly crashed to the ground.
    Czasu Past Perfect możemy również użyć gdy mówimy o (c) czynności, która zakończyła się już jakiś czas temu przed momentem mówienia.
    Mark had served in the navy for twenty years; then he retired and married. His children were now at school.
  5. Gdy mówimy o niezrealizowanych nadziejach i pragnieniach; rzeczach które się nie wydarzyły
    We had hoped he would be able to leave tomorrow, but it’s beginning to look difficult.
    He had intended to make a cake, but he ran out of time.
    if/wish/would rather
    I wish you had told me the truth.